Anthropology 161 - Week 3 Lecture Notes
Anthropology 161 - Week 3 Lecture Notes ANTH 161
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Janiel Celeena Santos on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 161 at University of Oregon taught by Baxter D in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views. For similar materials see World Cultures >2 >IC in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Anthro 161 October 13 2015 Race 0 Race as a biological concept cannot be defended 0 Race is seen as a biological reality 0 As a biological reality race has NO meaning 0 As a social reality it has SIGNIFICANT meaning 0 Races are created by people 0 They decide which phenotype traits are important 0 Different societies create different racial categories Race and Colonialism Racial hierarchy created as a justi cation for colonialism Other indicators were created religion language marriage type etc Race Constructed Around the World Dominican Republic 0 DR and Haiti make up the island of Hispaniola 0 DR a former Spanish country 0 Spanish forced the natives to work on plantations 0 African slaves were brought over 0 A mix of European Caribbean and African people Continues to identify with SpainHispanics NOT AfricaBlacks o Identi ed with what had been seen as superior to Africans o Continues to this day 0 Lighter skin considered better 0 No words used to identify one as black coffee blond rosy faded cinnamon etc no black identi er o Haitians are darker and considered lower and looked down upon Malaysia Precolonization main categorization of people through geography cultural practices and economic strategies 0 After colonization a hierarchy of race was put into place 0 300 British rule dismantles social patterns Racebased structure with 3 tiers Indian Chinese Malay 0 Indians worked in plantations and midlevel civil servants 0 Chinese did mining and small businesses 0 Malays rural rice paddy workelites in colonial government Connections between ethnicityworksocial inequality Racial categories remain in tact Current social unrest political struggle and rioting Now a mixing of racial lines due to globalization 0 Young women from rule areas moved to cities to work in factories 0 Sexual relationships between races blurring lines o Referred as Minah Karan Race in the USA 0 Overall discrete categories Racial categories have changed over time o lrishjew Italians once considered nonwhite Race in the US Census Brazil in government eliminated racial categories 0 Every 10 years census must be taken of population 0 Census contains question of race has changed over time 0 Used to contain white black and Mulatto o 1870 Chinese and Indian Natives added 0 1940 added Japanese Filipino Hindu Koreans o 2000 added ethnicity Hispanicor Not Hypodescent rules of racial classi cation established onedrop rule One drop of blood from quotlesserquot race was enough to label a child of that race Mixed race children then considered 39black39 Race and lmmioration Chinese lmmioration 185039s Yellow Peril Chinese take American jobs 0 1882 Chinese Exclusion Act 0 1St major in ux of Asians 0 Response to booming California Rush Waves lrishltaliansjews considered nonwhite o Prejudice was had against all groups 0 Religion played a part in exclusion 0 Slow process of assimilation 0 Restrictions ofjobs housing clubs military universities Hurricane Katrina 2005 Caused major damage to the city and its population 0 One of the biggest and most destructive events in America 0 City Poor suffered the most 0 The poor were mostly black Zenoun Abdulrahman and Kathy Zeitoun 0 House Painting business in New Orleans 0 Was there for Katrina Zeitoun took a canoe aided neighbors and abandoned animals 0 Police officers armed with M16s arrest Zeitoun in his home 0 Held in a makeshift prison then sent to Hunt Correctional Facility 0 Had no charges against him no lawyer held for many weeks 0 Questioned by homeland security 0 Wife eventually locates him after a pastor located him 0 Eventually all made up charges are dropped Arrested because he was Syrian and COULD be terrorists Anthro 161 October 15 2015 Ethnicity and Nationalism De ning Ethnicitv MexicanSalvadorian Ethnicity as Identity Ethnicity and Globalization Ethnic Identity growing in importance and power s learned not biological Has many components to being taught 0 Origin stories 0 Symbols 0 Cultural artifacts o Telling of history Ethnic Con ict Ethnicity can be a source of con ict 0 Ethnic identity and ethnicity ha been ether the source or excuse for con ict around the world 0 Most extreme forms include ethnocide and genocide Relationship of Ethnicity to the Nation NationState geographically bound state with a population that share a sense of culture and ancestry Nationalism a sense of pride in the nation a sense of shared destiny Nationalism similar to ethnic identity but de ned by the borders of a nationstate Creedpolitical ideology that involves an individual identifying withbecoming attached to one s nation Loyalty and pride in one s country Beliefs that one39s country is better than others The Crusades 0 First crusades began in 1095 when armies of Christians from western Europe responded to Pope Urban Ottoman Empire Centered around modern day Turkey Osman 1st consolidated power in late 13th century Three con icting pledges sets for struggle over and Negations for Palestine Divided up the middle east after WWI 0 French take Damascus and greater Syria is dismantles Arabian Peninsula given independence British given control over Palestine and transJordan and Iraq Lebanon taken by French Saudi Arabia only independent state 0000 New Map 0 New map created by outsiders r Littler concern for the views of those who lived there 0 In Iraq and Syria Jordan kings appointed who had nothing to do with the area came from Arabia 0 How to create loyalty to the new state and foster sense of nationalism Issues of identity Main Points 0 Creation of national identity necessary to concretize the new state and to encourage loyalty to the ruling elite Creation of national identity based signi cantly in British notionsidealsinterests Creation of national identity based signi cantly in modifying Bedouin identity Bedouins A nomadic Arab of the desert Predominantly desert dwellers traditionally organized in clans and tribes ldealized as 39Pure Arabs39 oral poetic tradition herding lifestyle code of honor O Bedouin communities in many countries Egypt Syria Israel Jordan Saudi Arabia Yemen Morocco Sudan Algeria Tunisia and Libya Today about 4 million 80 of new Jordan were Bedouins Now to make citizens of them to a new state Creating Nationalism Since nationalism lives through rituals practices and preformances it is constituited by them 0 Create nationa icons ags military dress legal system education cultural values rituals music food dress Palestinians Many ee and move to Jordan 0 No loyalty to Jordan state 0 Little in common with the Bedouin Are Palestinians Jordanian Royal Family Smallest number of people yield the most power 0 See themselves as descended from the Prophet Mohammad To some degree they see themselves as distinct from Jordanians