Ch 10 notes on Concept Checks, Textbook, and Videos
Ch 10 notes on Concept Checks, Textbook, and Videos PSY 101
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 101 at Arizona State University taught by Professor Goldinger in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at Arizona State University.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Chapter 10 Notes READ Chapter 10 from beginning until Summary 101 o Cognition to think allowing us to manipulate information internally to construct models of the world plan our interactions with that world and regulate ourselves to meet our goals 0 Cognitive psychology addresses thinking language and intelligence as well as perception learning and memory Knowledge the entire body of info acquired through study investigation observation and experience The mind manages this using symbols or mental representations to signify info People use mental images representation of any sensory experience that is stored in memory and can be retrieved for later use 0 Concepts are important for organizing our ideas 0 They should be defined by a group of instances that share overlapping features rather than a checklist of features or a definition Prototype results from an averaging of all members of your category but doesn t provide much info about the range of features possible Exemplar a specific instance of a concept provides a better way of thinking about the variability of a category Concept formation is a type of theory set of facts and relationships between facts that can be used to explain and predict phenomena building Schema shape memories and retrieval of information but also allows us to predict new facts Experience interacts with existing structures in the brain that help to organize our incoming information WATCH ASU Video 101 0 Steps to solving problemsmaking decisions PWF P Understand the problem Make a plan Carrying out the plan Find solutions to barriers along the way Evaluate the Outcome 0 Two general approaches to solve problems gt Algorithms trying all possible options until a solution is found the time to find the solution grows with the problem space gt Heuristics Mental shortcuts that we all use they are fast and efficient but not guaranteed to work 0 Insight problem solving the idea pops into your head without trying Conjunction fallacy caused by the representativeness heuristic Smaller samples have a higher possibility of a strange outcome 0 Availability heuristic we make judgements based on how easily examples come to mind often thinking of counterexamples WATCH Cognition How Your Mind Can Amaze and Betray You Crash Course Psychology 15 o Cognition knowing remembering understanding communicating learning 0 Concepts mental grouping of similar objects people ideas or events that simplify our thinking 0 Prototypes mental images or pinnacle examples of certain things to speed up our thinking but can lead to stereotypes o Cognition benefits us through problemsolving gt Trial amp error slow and deliberate gt Algorithms logical methodical stepbystep procedure that eventually guarantees a solution but may be slow to work through gt Heuristics simple strategies that allow us to solve problems faster although more errorprone than an algorithm 0 Our cognition often leads us astray through Confirmation BiasBelief Perseverance Tendency to look for and favor evidence that confirms our ideas while avoiding or ignoring evidence to the contrary 0 Our mental set determines what we perceive 0 Availability heuristic a mental shortcut relying on the psychologically salient or easily imagined examples rather than actual odds or factual information 0 Framing how an issue is presented Concept Check 101 with Quiz 0 Concept an organizing principle derived from experience 0 The brain has complex pathways for processing language that connects Broca s and Wernicke s areas to other cortical areas involved in cognition 0 Language learning is inborn Nature not nurture 0 Concept formation is seen in human beings as well as diverse categories of animals 0 Childhood ability to directly access visual images may be overwritten or interfered with by the development of more sophisticated language skills 0 Exemplars provide a better way of thinking about the variability of a category than prototypes o The mind often uses symbols to signify information 0 People can turn visual mental images around in their minds zoom in or out and identify their features Comparing the features of an item with a checklist when there are overlapping features is feature detection model Different languages overlap depending on the timing of learning and proficiency in each language Bilingual adults are less likely to get Alzheimer s because of the presence of a quotcognitive reserve A critical mutation in the FOXPZ gene 100000000 years ago marked the start of modern language Least difficulty to most difficulty in ability to learn language Williams syndrome Down syndrome mutation in FOXPZ gene READ Chapter 10 from language until the end Decision making Evaluating alternatives and making choices among them People have a limited ability to process info so they use simple strategies Availability heuristic basing the estimated probability of an event on the ease with which relevant instances come to mind often resulting in bias Representativeness heuristic basing the estimated probability of an event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event Intelligence Intelligent brains enjoy quick efficient communication of info from one area to another along axon pathways Also related to brain development Intelligence is more linked to white matter in women and grey matter in men It is 85 inheritable Fluid intelligence The ability to think logically without the need to use learned knowledge Crystallized intelligence The ability to think logically using specific learned knowledge General intelligence a measure of an individual s overall intelligence as opposed to specific abilities Collective intelligence a quality of group process independent of individual group members intelligence that predicts group performance Multiple intelligences single skills that tend to show relatively low correlations with one another and with general intelligence like musical abilities Social and Emotional Intelligence gt Allows people to manage emotions and reason about the mental state of others gt Separate from cognitive abilities gt Prefrontal cortex amygdala and insula important for emotion gt According to Dweck educators should not reward students for doing easy tasks and avoiding failure just to increase their selfesteem but they should teach students to value learning and promote effort and mistakes as parts of learning 0 IQ Intelligence Quotient gt Indicates where a person falls in the normal distribution of intelligence based on the average for their age group gt Average of 100 and standard deviation of 15 gt Flynn effect shows that IQ scores have increased by about 3 points per decade 0 Intellectualdisability gt A condition diagnosed in individuals with IQ scores below 70 and poor adaptive behaviors also known as mental retardation They show deficits in intellectual functioning early in childhood Language skills are typically unaffected Have problems expressing themselves clearly poor social skills Divided into categories of mild moderate severe and profound I Mild typically not from genetic or medical problems but from preventable environmental causes I Moderate result from genetic or medical conditions I Severe and Profound serious medical conditions identified at birth or early in infancy VVVV o Giftedness gt 1 to 3 of population IQ of 130 or above gt Creative geniuses Relatedness 0 We are similar to our genetic relatives 0 The probability that two people share copies of the same allele from a common ancestor usually computed within a limited number of generations WATCH ASU Video 102 0 Language Can be used to communicate to form social bonds or to control reality Based on phonemes sounds representing letters Morphemes arranges of phonemes like words Smallest version of meaning Grammar ties morphemes together in a way that sounds right Animals communicate but don t have a large set of messages to choose from and their signals focus on the present moment Animals can learn words but don t know grammar VVVVV gt Humans are deeply programmed to be language users born with capacity for language best to be exposed early on quotSensitive period until 12 years old can t learn language after that age Broca s area ability to produce phonemes Wernicke s area can produce phonemes but morphemes don t work properly Left side of the brain controls language right side of the brain controls spatial relations VVV WATCH Language Crash Course Psychology 16 0 Language can be acquired spontaneously through observation without planned training 0 Language set of spoken written or signed words and the way we combine them to communicate meaning 0 Humans have nearly 7000 different languages 0 English uses 40 phenomes o Phonemes form morphemes words 0 Receptive language the ability to understand what is being said to and about us starts as infants 0 Productive language producing words 0 Skinner says language is learned through operant conditioning 0 Languages always contain nouns verbs and adjectives and humans are born with an innate ability to acquire language and even a genetic predisposition to learn grammatical rules 0 Thinking and language are separate but intertwined Concept Check 102 with Quiz 0 People with high maximizer scores tend to be less happy and more prone to depression 0 A measure of an individual s overall intelligence as opposed to specific abilities I called general intelligence 0 Jimmy a 5 year old who is able to resist eating one marshmallow long enough to be rewarded with two demonstrates socialemotional intelligence 0 Communicating quickly and efficiently has nothing to do with intelligence 0 Sexlinked disorders which are more prevalent in males are typically caused by recessive diseased alleles found on the X chromosome 0 Standard measures of intelligence are positively correlated with the thickness of the cerebral cortex particularly in the prefrontal cortex and the temporal lobe o Socioeconomic status is positively correlated with IQ
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