HSTA 255 Notes 5-9 October
HSTA 255 Notes 5-9 October HSTA 255 - 01
Popular in Montana History
HSTA 255 - 01
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
HSTA 101H - 00
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Rachel Notetaker on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSTA 255 - 01 at University of Montana taught by Jeffrey M. Wiltse (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Montana History in History at University of Montana.
Reviews for HSTA 255 Notes 5-9 October
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/17/15
Long Road to Statehood 5 October I Introduction Transition to Unit Two A Industrial Montana a period of dramatic and intensive growth a Economicminingfarming has effect on environmentpolitics social relations B Montana history re ects larger trends and development in US history during this period 11 Prospects for Statehood in the 1870s A Benefits of statehood Gives people rights to elect their own judicialexecutive offices b Full representation in US Government 2 senators at least one representative in the House of Reps c Empowers State officials to levy their own taxes B Social and economic underdevelopment unrealistic goal to become a state in the 1870s 1 Slow population growth a NonIndian population dropped to 20000 in 1870 after gold boom ended rose to 39000 by 1880 2 Uneven economic development a Ranching and Timber market were in their infancies b Constrained growth MT companies served local markets and didn t export out of the territory c Poor transportation routes MT was Geographically isolated i Steam Ships moving up the MO river could rarely go past fort Benton 1 2000 miles overland to Butte transport mostly by horse drawn wagons Only operating in daytime couple miles an hour limited hauling capacity ii Union Pacific Railroad Stop in UT then MTCorine Road 350 miles up to South West MT III Montana s growth and development during the 1880s A Economic development a Timber West MiningCentral Ranching East Booms b Timber industry dates back to mid 1800 s but on a smaller scale i Montana Improvement Co 1882 first major lumber company ii Bonner Mill 1886 first major lumber mill B Population increase a Missoula County 20001880 to 144001890 people increase due to lumber industry b All of MT 39000 1880 to 143000 1890 due to booming industries as well as railroads C Extension of the railroads into Montana 1 Utah and Northern Line 188081 Spur from Union Pacific only went to Butte b Helped Silver Mining Grow c Narrower tracks any cargo had to be manually transferred over 2 Northern Pacific Railroad First transcontinental railroad going through MT a St Paul MN to Tacoma WA b Expensive to build done by government subsidizing 40 million acres of public land i 17 million acres of this land was in Montana From Dispossessed Indians c Entered from the East and West in 1881 met in Gold Creek Drummen MT and completed in 1883 d Drastically cut time 30 mileshours and expense of transporting people and things intoout of MT i Year round daynight easier through weather carried heavy things Lumber cattle construction equipment e Enables significant enables significant industrial growth ended geographical isolation IV Statehood A 1884 attempt at statehood a William Clark headed MT Constitution writing in 1883 finished in 1884 b Because of political circumstances in US as a whole MT Denied as a state B 1889 Enabling Act a Invites MT WA ND and SD to apply for admission as states C 1889 Constitutional Convention and Constitution a July 1889 75 men gather at Constitution Writing Convention b Considerable support for women s suffrage left it out to ensure statehood 1 Two contested issues a Unmined ore copper silver taxed as property for mining companies i Eastern reps taxed for unused ranching grounds b How many reps from each county to state senate i Set or based on populationadvantageous to Western reps 2 Conservative document a Regional Compromise each county was one state senator Political interest of the East and no taxes on unmined ore Economic interest of the West D Statehood achieved November 8 1889 a October Voted on Constitution was sent to US Congress b MT was 42nd state in the Union entered under President Harrison Industrialization of Mining 7 October 2015 1 Switching aspects of mining a Gold to silver to copper b Method placer surface to hard rock underground c Mining becomes industrialized 2 Industrialization Changes in way product was manufactures and commodities were processed a Use of machines rather than handtools b Use of nonhuman energy form steam engines electricity c For Montana manufacturing was not industrialized but lumbermineral mills were 3 Mining was most historically consequential for Montana history Overview a Created industrial working class led to development of labor unions class con ict b Led to creation of modern industrial cities Butte Anaconda Great Falls Missoula c Spurred massive migration to Montana d Emergence of people and institutions with great wealth and power i Copper Kings Anaconda Mining Company e Environmental damage Clark Fork River to this day still being cleaned up 4 From Preindustrial to Industrial Mining Gold to Silver a Prior to 1875 gold was placer mined sluice boxes shovels and picks sorting through soil i Very democratic form of mining accessible to small mining outfits Used picks shovels and human muscle and not machines b In 1875 Silver mining arose but silver occurs in veins mixed with lead and zinc i You have to blast down into the ground to get it ii It needs processing 1 Stamp mills beginning of industrialization and smelters 2 Due to need to process silver mining industry becomes consolidated iii Several large wealthy mining companies overtook the small democratic mining outfits 1 They hired miners to work for them as employees c Silver mining is profitable from the 1880s to 1890s in 1893 price drops from 121oz to 50oz ii Huge drop cause many mining companies to shut down only the richest most profitable mines and mining operations survived Drop causes a rise in Copper mining 5 Copper Mining in Butte begins in 1880s 2nd place to Silver until 1893 a Copper has much less value by weight than Silver i Between 1520 cents a pound compared to 50 cents an ounce b Long term prospects for copper larger than silver i ii Enormous amounts of Copper under Butte Industrial applications wiring for new electrical lights telephones c Problems with mining also occurred in veins mixed with other minerals i ii iii Same processing as silver occurred 300 ft below ground then thousands of feet below that 1 much deeper than silver which stopped around 300 ft needed to be mined in bulk needed to hire thousands of workers 1 startup companies costed millions of dollars 6 The Anaconda Mining Company founded in 1881 a Marcus Daly founder and most important figure in MT mining history i ii iii iv Irish immigrant came alone to US at age 15 in 1856 worked his way up mining industry 1 Had knack for identifying areas where large ore deposits are 1876 worked as mine scout for Walker Brothers Salt Lake City UT and arrives in Butte MT 1 Invests some of his own money in share of Alas Mine 1880 sells stake in Allas Mine for 100000 buys full claim to Anaconda Mine for 30000 1 Though it hadn t produced much mineral he believed it had potential 2 Gets investors to start mining operations San Francisco Syndicate a George Hearst Iames Ben Ali Haggan Lloyd Tevis 1882 found New Mineralquot 300 ft down 1 Mike we ve got itquot Daly 2 Found massive cooper deposit problematic for San Fransisco Syndicate a No longer a silver mining operation needed millions more dollars for copper mining V Buys claims for other silver mines in the area turns them into copper mines 1 Needed enormous reduction works smelter refinery to bring in profit for copper a Builds one 26 miles outside of Butte creates a whole city around it b Completed in 1884 cost 4 million to build employed 1200 men c Wanted to name it Copperopolis but the name was taken vi 1899 Anaconda Mining Company becomes Leviathon 1 Mines in Butte reduction works in Anaconda a Railroad built to connect to two towns Butte Anaconda and Pacific Railroad 2 Bought waterworks forest land in Western MT and lumber mill in Bonner also coal mines in Central and Eastern MT a Vertical integration Controlled all resources needed to produce copper 3 Was economic political power Immigrants and Cities 9 October I Introduction Dispelling false assumptions A MT is mostly a rural state B Montanans lack diversity are homogenous 11 Social Composition of Montana s Population circa 1900 A Total population 243000 includes 12000 Native Americans 1 Grew from 187020000 188039000 1890143000 B Sources of population growth during the 18905 1 Everyone came for jobs increasing industrialization of mining 18905 1 50 of wage earners in MT got their check from the Anaconda Mining Company 2 13 population of MT in 1900 economically linked to Anaconda Mining Company 2 Completion of Great Northern Railroad 1893 1 Many towns along railroad were created specifically to service the railroad 2 Brought NonIndians into Northern MT 3 Middle Class Professionals brought in by government in18905 1 Teachers ministers doctors lawyers bankers businessmen etc 2 UM est 1893 Go Griz C Social composition of Montana s population 1 Nonwhites 7 1 11300 Native Americans 6th most in the Union 2 1500 African Americans Helena Butte 3 1700 Chinese immigrants Decline from 1880 a Once railroads were finished Chinese left Those that stayed went into laundries restaurants 4 2450 Iapanese immigrants 6 in 1890 Employed by the Great National Railroad 2 Whites 93 1 57 ethnic Americansquot a 28 foreign born 29 children of foreign born b Twice the national averages of the time 2 Prior to 1900 most immigrants from North and West Europe a England Ireland Germany Sweden Norway Finland 3 After 1900 most immigrants from South and East Europe a AustriaHungary Empire Italy Russia Greece 3 Most Common Montanan in 1900 was a male ethnic industrial worker 111 Growth of cities A Population statistics 18901900 1 ButteSilver Bow County 24000 to 48000 2 Anaconda 4000 to 9500 3 Great Falls MT Mining Co est 1893 4000 to 15000 E Urban vs rural 1 Immigrants mostly settled in cities due to job prospects Copper Mining C Butte 1 In the 1870s 1 1875 Silver Mining begins with William Farlan and the Trivone Elite 2 In the 1880s and 1890s 1 Quickly grew socially and structurally 2 Road Cars Electricity Large buildings by early 1890s 3 1898 Hennessey s Department Store 6 stories 600000 to build a Skyscrapers 8 stories made an appearance b 2nd largest red light district in country next to New Orleans 3 Butte s diversity 1 42 Languages present in the 1890s 4 Social differentiation 1 2 3 Divided on social lines race class ethnicity East Uptown was poor West Uptown was rich Each ethnic group had their own neighborhood 5 Butte s social problems 1 50 inmates at state penitentiary greater than 50 at state mental hospital Mortality due to acute alcoholism drug syphilis suicide stabbing Overcrowded unsanitary Typhoid Fever 5 Tuberculosis death rates was twice the national average at the time Moral Problems drinking whoring gambling