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Date Created: 01/06/15
Biology Lab Final Notes OsmosisDiffusion DNA Extraction DNA Electrophoreses Cell Division 75 Points 45 Points matching multiple choice fillintheblank short answers DNA sequencing 30 Points Practical questions around the lab tables OSMOSISDIFFUSION DIFFUSION molecules moving from an area of high concentration to an area of low concentration Diffusion occurs until equilibrium is reached HIGH 9 LOW DIFFUSION DEPENDS ON THREE FACTORS 1 Diameter of the molecules smaller molecules diffuse faster 2 Temperature of the solution higher temperatures lead to faster diffusion rates 3 The concentration gradient in the system the greater the concentration in a system the faster a substance will diffuse OSMOSIS type of diffusion using Water It is When Water molecules diffuse down a concentration gradient across a semipermeable membrane HIGH WATER CONCENTRATION 9 LOW WATER CONCENTRATION SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE a membrane that allows some materials to pass through while rejecting the passage of others CONCENTRATION GRADIENT the direction in which a substance moves from the high concentration to the low concentration across a membrane 0 Dialysis tubing is used as a semipermeable membrane 0 KMnO4 traveled the furthest during the ten minutes in hot Water RATE OF DIFFUSION furthest distance traveledtime 0 As temperature increases so does the rate of diffusion 0 The hot Water caused a faster diffusion rate because the particles move faster at higher temperatures 0 ORANGE SMALL MOLECULES CAN PASS THROUGH THE SEMIPERMEABLE MEMBRANE 0 GREEN LARGE MOLECULES CAN NOT PASS THROUGH THE SEMIPERMIABLE MEMBRANE 0 Over time the rate of osmosis decreases 0 After several hours of observing osmosis and molasses we would not see any change because it would meet equilibrium and there would be no more movement 0 The bag swells to where it could burst because of osmosis TONICITY the property of a solution that depends on the osmotic force exerted across a membrane as in uenced by the differing concentrations of solutes in and out of a cell ISOTONIC SOLUTION a solution of equal solute concentration that has no net ow of water into or out of the cell HYPERTONIC SOLUTION a condition in which the inside of a cell has a high solute concentration than the environment concentration of water is greater outside of the cell Osmosis causes the water to ow out of the cell and causes the cell to shrink HYPOTONIC SOLUTION a condition in which the inside of a cell has a higher solute concentration than its environment concentration of water is greater outside of the cell Osmosis causes a net ow of water into the cell causing swelling and expansion This swelling may cause cells without a rigid cell wall to burst PLASMOLYSIS a condition where the plasma membrane pulls away from the cell wall as the cell shrinks This happens in a hypertonic solution Normal Elodea Cells Elodea Cells after salt is added 0 The elodea cells shriveled because the water moved out of the cell towards the area of low water concentration through osmosis DNA EXTRACTION DNA A long chain of nucleotides each consisting of a nitrogenous base a pentose sugar and a phosphate group A T amp C G complimentary bases 0 DNA is located in the nucleus 0 The blender is used to separate the cell walls of the peas or break them apart 0 By adding salt to the pea mixture the DNA clumps together 0 Detergent removes the cell membrane so the DNA is able to move freely Within the liquid mixture 0 Meat Tenderizer acts as an enzyme that breaks down the proteins on the outside of the DNA