Oct 12th- 19th (Chapter 10)
Oct 12th- 19th (Chapter 10) PSYC-1000-01
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha R on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1000-01 at Tulane University taught by Fabian, Melinda in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 52 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Chapter 10 Intelligence Friday ct ldeir 9 2 15 244 AM What is Intelligence 0 F 0 Spearman39s General Intelligence Factor 8 Thurstone39s Response 0 Spearman I I Argued that those who tested high in one area would also score higher in other areas The idea of a general mental capacity measured by a single score was controversial in his day 00 I Gave 56 different tests Did not rely on just one scale I BUT they found that Comparing Theories of Intelligence 0 Mental abilities are like physical abilities although running fast 8 hand eye coordination are distinct from each other O I o Theories of Multiple Intelligences O I H Gardner identified verbal mathematical etc assessed by standard tests I He then proposed III 4 in 5 people with savant are males III Many have autism spectrum disorder 0 Steinberg39s Three Intelligences 39h 0 Tested by presenting welldefined problems with one right answer 0 Effective in predicting school performance 2 0 Ability to develop novel ideas 3 0 Required for everyday tasks 0 Less based on academic problem solving skills and more based on the ability to manage yourself tasks 8t others 0 Criticisms of Intelligence Theories I r U I III 10 Year Rule 10 years of intense daily practice will result in mastery 0 Emotional Intelligence 0 0 I Emotional Intelligence consists of 4 abilities Recognizing them in faces music tones etc Predicting them amp how they may transform Knowing how to express them in different situations 1 I 39 o Emotionally intelligent people are both 390 4 Assessing Intelligence o O 0 39 u39 I o The SAT has a 82 correlation with general intelligence gt I Is this because people can afford SAT tutors So really there is a correlation with wealth 8t intelligence 0 Early 8 Modern Tests of Mental Abilities 0 Francis Galton Belief in Hereditary Genius I Found there is no connection between intellectual ability 8 inherited evolutionary favorable traits such as reaction time body proportions muscular power etc 0 Alfred Binet Predicting School Achievement III A measure of intelligence test performance devised by Binet amp viceverse III Made no assumptions as to why a particular college was more intelligence I The purpose of this test was to help identify children who needed special attention NOT to label children 8t limit their oportunities he feared this would happen 0 Lewis Terman The Inmate IQ III This was modified to become the I Negative Repercussions III Terman essentially only those with high intelligence should reproduce III 8t army recruits during WWI cutting the immigration quota down by 50 0 Wouldn39t let unintelligent immigrants in 0 David Wechsler Separate Scores for Separate Skills httrr lmI tgtl r I K S III The latest WAIS consists of 15 su btests o Standardization Unit2 Page 1 Theoquot Specman39s general mter lrgento g Ihurstone39s primary mental cbtlrhes Gardner s multiple mtetlrgences Sternberg39s Hiarthr c Summarg A detL Intelllqence predicts our abilities In varred dCddeK areas Our trttelltgente may be broken down Into seven Iattors word lluencg verbal comprehonSton spatial abilrtg perceptual speed numencal abrittg mductwe rcav sontng and memorg Our abrltttes are best lossrfted Into eight independent intelltgentes whtch In ludl a broad range oI skulls beuond traditional school smarts Our mtellrgence ts best classrlred rnto three areas that predict realworld suc 955 analytical reative and ntattital n quotr an In Necnsler l39TlE II Igence score SAT scores verbal quantitative 2 135 34 34 135 2393 Strengths Driferent abrltties suit as verbal and spatial do have some tendentg to Orrolato A single 9 score rs not as informative as scores Ior seven pnmarg mental Jblllltt S lnlDllIgC OEC us more than just ver bal and mathematical skulls Other abrlrtres are equellg important to but human adaptabrlrtg These three latets can be reliably measwed l7 1r39jjr 39 gt Vt Other Consideration Human abrlttres are too diverse to be errmpsulatud bu a srngle general rntel ltqento latter Even Thurstone39s sewn mental abrlrtres show a tendency to duster suggesting an underlumg g lactor Should all cl Our abrlrtres be censdered rntetlrgpnees Shouldn39t same be called less vrtal talents these three lacets may be less rndepenv dent than Sternberg thought and mag attuallg share an underlging 9 factor Addttronal testing IS needed to deter mine whether these Iotets an relrablg predrct sumess N III The latest WAIS consists of 15 su btests o Standardization 0 0 III This is assessed by computing the correlation between test scored amp the criterion behavior The Dynamics of Intelligence 0 Stability or Change quot quotquot quot39quot 0 Aging I Phase I of Decline III Comparing III It supported the idea that mental ability does decline with age I Phase II of Decline III Retested the j n inall II1I391 III Supported the idea of stability in intelligence III The ones who survived until the end of the longitudinal study could have less of a tendency to decline in intelligence than the average person III We might decline in some areas of intelligence while gaining in others 9 9 Z story Islnrmrs Llewa39 on above 1 hrluw Ilw Firzrl 0 Tendst ltgt Tendsto 0 Despite a decrease in fluid intelligence those of age display greater wisdom in viewing from multiple perspectives compromise amp selfawareness of the extent of their own knowledge I Intelligence Over the Life Span u INTELLIGENCE DOES ENDURE III Those with higher IQ39s tend to live longer 0 Extremes of Intelligence I Low Extreme 0 a 0 2Criteria ltgt 27o IQ ltgt Adaptation to D Poor Computational Social amp Practical skills El I High Extreme III Children with extraordinary academic gifts are sometimes isolated amp shy but most thrive Genetics amp Environmental Influences on Intelligence 0 Twins amp Adoption Studies O I I nm r r mudJIlnn IhI39I 39I i r I I quotI SH ll 1lv L iden JI hwnsmmec Intelllgence I I gm mm a I39OIE39S r17 III39IIIIt IIIl I39 ll chorrelat owl genetic Effects an i I 4 I I g I litrill I liiiwiir 11 7391Ilrrii ltifi39il g LIquotllrrl wrs Imus twms reared Ildl ll JlJ lS 3939139m39 round warm 39nguhrr arm7r Ingrihri I Il Ingrll t i tJSHIIM ThIs Is Still a rather Low correlation Childparent mrrelalinn I1 an in Inertial abiliiw store5 El 1539 III IquotII39n IrIL39I Illii39il U u hirlh Jammie I I act Ittd children arid il eir birth paneats i39L ii r39adblz39ileal nihilJJIer will rhrji39variqanl39im Farrnu I39I HE D DD 5 years LE yllam 0 Environmentallnfluences 0 Early Environmental Influences I Negative Influences III nothing to engage the child El 0 Unresponsive parenting doesn39t answer child39s cries does not interact with child El El I While preschool experiences matter stressing over getting your child special education is a waste of time I There is no surefire way to turn a child into a genius o Schooling amp Intelligence I Education can aid in developing cognitive amp social skills I Some believe El I IMuar l l Fig1 it helps foster ha rdwork amp success Unit2 Page 2 95 2 l35 2 34 34 135 2 Nechsler idle II Igence score l w w SpIsrLI 39vor39mlogical 33v I There is no surefire way to turn a child into a genius o Schooling amp Intelligence I Education can aid in developing cognitive amp social skills I Some believe III it helps foster ha rdwork amp success I Ability Opportunity Motivation Success 0 Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores 0 Gender Similarities amp Differences I between genders in intelligen o Racial amp Ethnic Similarities amp Differences I 2 Disturbing but True Facts lingmunquot I IISl ihll39DJ IE lnulr I l Flex1 El III High scoring groupspeople are more likely to attain higher levels of education H I my I Individual differences are clearly genetic 2quot 39 I we don39t know for sure 39 quot 39 III Genetics reveals that races are incredibly alike III different eras different races have experienced golden ages 0 The Question of Bias 0 Are intelligence tests inappropriately biasedgt o 2 Meanings of Bias I Scientific The test39s validity III Does it predict future behavior only for some groups I Cultural Do the questions have any cultural pretenses III Do the questions make sense to everyone 0 Does the question makes assumptions about our knowledge or customs o TestTakers39 Expectation I If one expects to do poorly they will underperform vice versa Unit2 Page 3
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