Exam 2: Week 1
Exam 2: Week 1 Poli Sci 103
Popular in Intro to International Relations
Popular in Political Science
This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lindsey Notetaker on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Poli Sci 103 at University of Wisconsin - Madison taught by Jon Pevehouse in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see Intro to International Relations in Political Science at University of Wisconsin - Madison.
Reviews for Exam 2: Week 1
You're awesome! I'll be using your notes for sure moving forward :D
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 10/17/15
Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations October 13 2015 Lecture Agenda 0 Announcements 0 Introduction to International Security Issues 0 Studying IS and con ict 0 Defense spending 0 New defense challenges 0 46W 0 CivilMilitary relations 0 Causes of War Studying International Security Oldest tradition in the eld of IR 0 Accounts for the popularity of realism Focus of the eld of security studies has shifted and diversi ed 0 Balance of power 19th century early 20th c 0 Nuclear deterrence and strategy mid to late 20th c New weapon that fundamentally changed the game no longer needed hundreds of people just a couple of bombs o Asymmetric warfare and human security 21st c Post Cold War Asymmetric warfare small groups against really big groups ISIS against US Human security stop focusing on safety of states and focus on individuals Con ict Con ict a difference in preferred outcomes in a bargaining situation 0 Doesn t always mean physical Leverage using power capabilities to in uence an actor to reach an agreement more favorable to you 0 Bargaining o Carrots vs sticks rewards vs punishments Con ict does NOT equal war 0 War is a means of leverage 0 Con ict ladder 9 war is at the top 0 But there are other means of leverage 0 Trade regulations tax and monetary policies normsideas foreign aid economic sanctions international organizations etc Means of Leverage 0 Means of leverage is parallel to solving collective action problem 0 Dominance o Reciprocity 0 Identity you ght for your people 0 Yet on security issues militarypower leverage dominance are often the quotgo toquot strategy 0 Ex US defense spending for protection and strategy 0 The US spends a lot but there are other countries that spend more 0 It s how you spend the money what you use it on that matters over how much you have Defense Spending Defense Economics 0 Different states allocate spending differently based on a variety of factors 0 Perceived comparative advantage what do you do well We excel in technology we may have less tanks but our tanks are better 0 Threats in neighborhood 0 Alliance partners ex US has nuclear weapons and we vow to protect those we have alliances with so they don t have to worry about spending their money on nuclear weapons bc the US has them Ex US goals 0 1990s 2 major regional con icts MRCs Goal was to be able to have troops in two different places ghting 0 Post 911 1 major regional con ict homeland defense Changed from earlier to wanting to be able to be in one con ict then use the rest for homeland defense Old analogy US and Great Depression 0 We can spend more and more money on defense bc it will help economy after all that s what happened with WWII and the Great Depression New analogy USSR and Collapse There is a tradeoff bw longterm economic growth and military spending 0 Technology 0 jobs 0 Problem politicians are only in for the short term Size what does all this money get us 0 Not just money 0 Personnel 14 mil active duty 600k civilians 850k reserve 0 gt700 installations in gt50 countries 0 Energy use 0 Slingle largest user of energy in world equivalient to Nigeria During the Cold War 0 1989 0 Budget 300 billion 0 Employees 4 mil 2 mil soldiers 1 mil employees 1 mil national guard 0 13 of all federal civil service were DoD employees 0 900 military bases and properties Defense Economics Force Con guration 0 Enter politics 0 Ex base closings o BRAC base realignment and closing procedures create a list of what they re going to close that congress gets to vote up or down does not get to amend debate or changeit o BRAC tries to get Congress out of the process 0 Ex defense spending 0 When do projects get cut 0 Who cuts them Krepenivisch The Pentagon s Wasting Assests 0 Point of article the DOD is changing too much with the times 9 to reliant on technology o Is US ready to confront new threats 0 Asymmetric warfare o Nonstate actors 0 Ex Millennium Challenge 2002 o Showed US s weakness too reliant on tech so enemies can intentionally go low tech and defeat the US that way o Is power projection becoming more difficult 0 Ex East Asia and China Spreading problem of RAMMs Rocket Artillery Mortar and Missiles 000 New Defense Challenges 4thGeneration Warfare Fourthgeneration warfare 0 quotBut I missed the rst three generationsquot First gen muskets line and column tactics Second gen attrition warfare trenches repower Third gen maneuver warfare rapid mechanization Fourth gen guerilla warfare asymmetric war one side s hiding the other is seeking o Simultaneous rise with the RMA technology RMA Technological superiority will be key to future warfare need a quotsmaller learner more advanced militaryquot 0 US assumed our forces would have command of the network NCW quotfull spectrum dominancequot Gulf War I and initial phases of Afghanistan and Iraq seemed to support the idea 0 Technology is how we easily and very quickly destroyed Sudan Husain and Afghanistan 0 But saw how other countries were easily destroyed by the enemy s use of simple cheap technology to easily shut the expensive machines down Krepenivich How can states best prepare for future challenges 0 Strategy adaptation 0 Cyber warfare concerns 0 New technological advances What s Next o If the US can no longer assume information and technological superiority 0 Fighting for cyberspace 0 Going low tech 0 Problem still need to prepare for conventional war 0 China Revisionist Russia 0000 Drones O CivilMilitary Relations Political Science 103 Intro to International Relations October 15 2015 Agenda Cyberwar o CivilMilitary Relations 0 Causes of War 0 Why study war 0 Types of war Territorial Con icts Economic Con icts CW 0 New way of attacking Used to shut down Iran nuclear plan and offset it by a year and a half CivilMilitary Relations 0 Key factor is command and control o If you ve got a large force but you can t control them 0 Ex Iraq in 1991 o 120k professional soldiers o 4500 tanks 4000 APCs o 3000 artillery o 280k conscripted soldiers each with Rocket Propelled Grenades and mortars o Pentagon estimates largest 3040k coalition casualties prewar Actual coalition deaths 472 325 nonbattle accident Why Many factors gure into command technology morale Iran soldiers were forced to be there and didn t want to be there discipline communication etc 0 CNN said US was preparing for an amphibious attack Iran listened to this and prepared for this by shifting their people there US shut down their technology and surrounded them Controlling the Forces 0 For many countries key question is not control in battle but control in politics 0 Military Coup threats military turns against the government 0 Want a big military but not one so big it can run over you especially if you are an anarchy Coup d etat quotblow against the statequot Democracies separation of military and civilian powers 0 Military governments still relatively common 0 Burma Myanmar 0 Honduras 0 Niger Causes of War Why Study War 0 Prevention if we know how to ght we know how to stop it o Ax to grind history of war is written by winner so maybe if they lost one war they want to rewrite that 0 Sexy epic movies are about war De ning War quotSustained organized violence between two internationally recognized groupsquot 0 Why not study peace 0 quotWar and peace are more than opposites They have so much in common that neither can be understood without the otherquot Geoffey B 0 Can t study war without peace Conceptualizing War Clausewitz War is diplomacy by other means 0 Consistent with our idea of leverage 0 Fighting for something Keegan war is sui generis o Clausewitz wrote about war as he wantedit to be but how it actually is War isn t leverage it s tragedy Problems in Studying War 0 1 dogs that don t bark 0 Ask someone 39how would you study war 39how do you study a cold 0 People will go and study wars that happened Doctor sees 80 people that have coughs all these people went to the football game therefore the football game caused the cold lncorrect Must study everyone at the football game in order to infer that Therefore must study all wars even those that didn t happen 0 The important wars could be the ones that do not happen 0 CubanAmerican Missile War 0 IndiaPakistan Atomic War 0 World War Ill 0 The FrancoBritish War of 1898 Almost went to war over Egypt British controlled Egypt Nile River Nile River starts in Sudan French want to take this and cutoff Nile River 0 2 War is a lowprobability event 0 Probability that war breaks out in a given year between any two geographically contiguous states between 1816 1980 000009 extremely rare We tend to focus on the rare times there is war rather than the time there isn t 0 Putting the science in political science The quantitative study of war data data data 0 3 No easy explanations No one thing that causes a war 0 Ex Language Theory 0 If we all speak the same language we can all communicate well and there will be no more war 0 Esperanto o Volapuk 0 BS otherwise the Civil War wouldn t have happened 0 Ex Ethnic con ict 0 quotThey ve always hated each otherquot 0 This is what leaders say when they don t want to get involved An excuse the years where they are ghting pales in comparison to the years they haven t been ghting 0 Ex Democratic Peace War and Levels of Analysis 0 Individual 1 o Hitler StateSociety 2nd SystemlnterstateGlobal 3rd 0 We will largely focus on 2nCI and 3rd Wars by Type 0 What is being fought over 0 Territory most common Economic matters Control of governments Ethnic con icts Religious con icts o Ideological con icts very rare 0 Some of these clearly overlap Territorial Con icts 0000 Oldest and most common type of con ict in IR 0 Land is the basis for the state and therefore the basis for sovereignty Two types of territorial disputes o Fights between states over land ownership 0 Fights over who has the right to the land within an existing state lrredentism regaining territory lost to another state 0 Ex Bulgaria Turkey Serbia 1885 BorderLand disputes demarcation questions land grabs 0 Ex War of 1812 0 We invade Canada bc we know the British are occupied with Napoleon 0 We say Canada s land is supposed to be ours No one believes this but we go through the motions anyways Why
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'