Popular in Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Biology
This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaydra Notetaker on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 237 at University of New Mexico taught by Shaner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Human Anatomy and Physiology I for the Health Sciences in Biology at University of New Mexico.
Reviews for Week 8
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
Date Created: 10/17/15
Week 8 Teeth NOT bones similarities to bone contain minerals differences from bone teeth are exposed bones are not teeth are harder than bones dentin hardest part of the body calcified tissue teeth are NOT vascularized stem cells in pulp marrow of teeth doesn t make blood cells teeth can t heal breaks bones can What is arthrology The study of joints What is a joint where one or more bones come together Functions of joints 1 give skeleton mobility 2 holds skeleton together Classification of joints Structure 1 Fibrous 2 Cartilaginous 3 Synovial has fluidfilled space Func on 1 Synarthroses no movement 2 Diarthroses free movement 3 Amphiarthroses some movement Fibrous Joints dense fibrous connective tissue no joint activity three types 1 Sutures site where bone plates come together in the skull ossify with age immoveable joint synarthroses 2 Syndesmoses held together by ligaments ie the joint between the fibula and tibia Week 8 3 Gomphoses peridontal ligaments hold teeth in place Cartilaginous Joints joined by cartilage no joint cavity not highly moveable two types 1 Synchondroses hyaline cartilage ie epiphyseal platejoint between rib and sternum 2 Symphyses fibrocartilage ie intervertebral discspubic symphysis Synovial Joints bones coming together around a fluidfilled cavity made up of articular cartilage hyaline thinsquishy helps protect bone ends from rubbing togetherbeing crushed articular capsule fibrous layer reinforces capsule provides additional support synovial membrane secretes synovial fluid into joint cavity joint cavity articular cavity synovial fluid whiteish filmy substance slippery weightbearing cushionsreduces friction contains macrophages breakdown debris and foreign organisms in joint cavity reinforcement ligaments capsular thickened fibrous layer extra intra outerinner Double Jointed longer than standard reinforcement ligaments innervated helps nervous system determine if we are upright or not vascularized Bursae a fluidfilled pillow rolls around to cushion synovial joint made of connective tissue Tendon Sheath elongated connective tissue Week 8 surrounds tendon protects tendon from damage Stability of Synovial Joints can t have stability and flexibility at the same time ways to maintain stability 1 Articular Surfaces where bones come together argesnug articular surfaces will increase stability 2 Ligaments the more ligaments the more stable the joint can stretch but only a little snap easily 3 Muscle Tone tendons connect muscles to bones muscle contraction keeps tendons taught tight heps to reinforce the synovial joint Muscles Origin part of the muscle that is attached to an immoveable bone lnsertion part of the muscle that moves Range of Motion Jypes 1 Nonaxial sipping rather than rotating 2 Uniaxial movement on one plane ie elbow 3 Biaxial movement on two planes ie fingers 4 Multiaxial movement on three planes ie shoulders Types of Movement Allowed by Synovial Joints 1 Gliding fat bone surface slips over another ie when you wave your hand 2 Angular nodding your head bending over at the waist bending the knee increases and decreases the angle between the bones types 1 hyperextension moving head backwards towards your shoulder blades 2 extension Week 8 holding head upright 3 flexion touching your chin to your chest 4adduc on moving closer to the midline of the body ie your arm down at your side 5abduc on moving away from the midline of the body ie holding your arms straight out to the sides 6 circumduction circular motion like making a cone in space moving your arm in circles 3 Rotation 1 lateral rotating outside the body 2 medial rotating towards the inside of the body 3 pronation radius crosses over the ulna 4 supination radius is parallel to the ulna 4 Other Types 1 Dorsiflexion flexing the foot with toes pointed upwards 2 Plantarflexion flexing the foot so toes are pointed down 3 Inversion ankle is twisted so the foot is medial to the body 4 Eversion ankle is twisted so the foot is lateral to the body 5 Protraction when you stick your mandible jaw outward 6 Retraction when you pull your mandible jaw inward 7 Elevation mandible goes up like in chewing 8 Depression mandible goes down just like when chewing 9 Opposition able to use the thumb to touch the tips of your fingers Types of Synovial Joints 1 Plane Joint nonaxial movement carpals flat articular surfaces 2 Hinge Joint Week 8 uniaxial cylindertrough elbow 3 Pivot Joint uniaxial sleeve boneligament and axle rounded bone ulna and radius 4 Condylar Joint biaxial phalanges 5 Saddle Joint biaxial articular surfaces that are concave and convex wrist 6 Ball and Socket Joint mutiaxia cupsocket and spherical head ball hips and shoulders Knee argest most complex joint in the body a collection of three different joints in one bones included femur tibia fibula patella joints that make up the knee patellafemoral joint patella connected to the femur tibiofemoral joint tibia connected to the femur there are two of these one medial and one lateral muscles associated with the knee quadnceps front of the knee four muscles with tendons that support the knee gastrochemuis back of the knee Menisci squishy pads crescent shape made of fibrocartilage uses absorption of compression dispenses weight evenly throughout the knee redices friction highly vascularized only attached at the outermost section of the menisci to the knee Week 8 Articular Capsule make up the sides and the posterior knee Ligaments different types atera media patear retinacuium patear ligament fibuar collateral and tibial collateral ligaments tibia collateral aldo known as medial collateral ligament MCL this is what slips when the knee buckles obique popliteal ligament moves side to side stabiizes the position of the knee arcuate popliteal ligament tiny in comparison to others anterior cruciate ligament ACL prevents displacement in the anteriorposterior direction prevents forward sliding of the tibia prevents hyperextension of the knee posterior cruciate ligament PCL prevents sliding of the femur prevents displacement of the tibia arger then the ACL Knee Injuries 1 Fracture most commonly in the patella symptoms bruising pain inabiity to walkstraighten leg treatment crutches castspint 2 Dislocation igamenttendon stretches too much once it happens it is likely to happen again caused by impact injury 3 Injury to AOL stretchtear partial or complete most common ligament injury caed a sprain types of sprains Grade 1 mild damage sighty stretched still able to supportprotect knee Grade 2 igament overstretched and is loose Week 8 partial tear igament never returns to original state east common sprain Grade 3 compete tear competey unstable damage caused by sudden direction changesstopping altogether Treatment RICE RRest cemmobiize CCompression EElevation