BIO 104 - Chapter 8 Notes
BIO 104 - Chapter 8 Notes BIO 104
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Olivia Orlando on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 104 at Grand Valley State University taught by in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see Biology for the 21st Century in Biology at Grand Valley State University.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
Biology 104 Chapter 8 Notes Genes and Proteins Lecture Book The order of amino acids determines the shape of the 3D blob and thus the function if you change the pattern of the amino acid chains the function changes and mutations occur In a chromosome there could be a section that coeds for a protein called a gene A gene is a section of a chromosome that we use for a protein they can come in different forms or versions with slightly different sequences which are called alleles Regulatory sequence controls the timing location and amount of gene expression Coding sequence determines the sequence of amino acids in the protein Transcription is a direct copy of something DNA AGTC 9 RNA AGUC both nucleic acids Translation is taking RNA AGUC nucleic acids sequences and translating it into proteins 20 Different Kinds amino acids Proteins are very critical to cell function because of this most drugs are either chemicals that interact with specific proteins or proteins themselves All proteins are made of the same building blocks called amino acids 20 different amino acids found in proteins Amino acids bind together in linear chains to form proteins The particular sequence of amino acids in a chain determines how the chain will fold and if the sequence changes so will the shape most likely A gene is a sequence of DNA that contains instructions for making at least one protein found along the length of chromosomes Gene expression is the process of using DNA instructions to make proteins Alleles are alternative versions of the same gene that have different nucleotide sequences words with different spellings some of these variant spellings are harmless color 9 colour other change the meaning of the word entirely here 9 hear Having a nonfunctional protein is as harmful as not having one at all Transgenic refers to an organism that carries one or more genes from a different species Example Transgenic Goats isolate the gene of interest from a human chromosome and then insert it into the genome of a goat embryo A regulatory sequence is the part of a gene that determines the timing amount and location of protein production onoff switches for genes A coding system is the part of a gene that specifies the amino acid sequence of a protein also determine the identity shape and function of proteins coding sequences determine the identity of a protein they specify the order or sequence of amino acids Genetic engineering is the process of assembling new genes With novel combinations of regulatory and coding sequences A recombinant gene is a genetically engineered gene Genetically modified organisms GMOs are organisms that have been genetically altered by humans Gene therapy is a treatment that aims to cure human disease by replacing defective genes With functional ones researchers hope that gene therapy may one day help treat several disorders caused by defective genes Gene therapy is highly controversial amongst scientists environmentalist and the general public Transcription is the first stage of gene expression during Which cells produce molecules of messenger RNA mRNA from the instructions encoded Within genes in DNA Messenger RNA mRNA is the RNA copy of a sequence made during transcription serves to relay information Translation is the second stage of gene expression during which mRNA sequences are used to assemble the corresponding amino acids to make proteins Transcription begins in the nucleus of a cell When an enzyme called RNA polymerase binds to DNA at a gene s regulatory sequence located just ahead of the coding sequence A ribosome is the cellular machinery that assembles proteins during translation during translation the ribosome reads the mRNA transcript and translates it into of chain of amino acids A codon is a sequence of three mRNA nucleotides that specifies a particular amino acids Transfer RNA tRNA is a type of RNA that transports amino acids to the ribosomes during translation The anticodon is the part of a tRNA molecules that binds to a complementary mRNA codon Genetic code is the set of rules relating particular mRNA codons to particular amino acids References Shuster Michele Janet Vigna Matthew Tontonoz and Gunj an SinhaBiology for a Changing World with Physiology New York City WH Freeman 2014 Print