Course Reader Notes Week 2
Course Reader Notes Week 2 GE CLST 60A
Popular in General Education Clusters 60A - America in Sixties: Politics, Society, and Culture, 1954 to 1974
GE CLST 60A
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HIST 170B - 04
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sandy Ho on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GE CLST 60A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Decker, J.L. Aberbach, J.D. Schwartz, J.A. Lewis, L.V. in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see General Education Clusters 60A - America in Sixties: Politics, Society, and Culture, 1954 to 1974 in Social Sciences at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/17/15
CH 4 The Menace Finds Its Spokesman Goldston Democratic party defeated in the 1946 congressional elections accused for being soft on communism determined to outdo the Republicans in combating the Menace o Truman in 1947 issues Executive Order 9835 creating a loyaltysecurity program for the gov t every gov t employee and employees of private corps subject to investigation by the Federal Bureau of Investigation those found disloyal would be fired theirjob loyalty not the only criterion of what was deemed a security risk alcoholism drugs sexual perversion defining loyalty is hard 0 involves investigating inner beliefs thoughts emotions hard to do the English Common Law states a man s opinion are his own to govern and no business of others but in times of deep crisis the courts allow the gov t wideunconstitutional means to maintain its security attorney general sent to write down lists of organizations that were subversive of American ideals anyone that showed sympathy to USSR was subversive list traced back to the 19303 when the US and USSR were still allies quilt bv association loyalty review boards for each gov t dept FBI would turn in all info to these depts unchecked face value testimonies and evidence people took advantage of this to accuse personal enemies susoect presumed quiltv until proven innocent o charges unknown was classified disloyal until loyalty proven HOW some produced military medals testimonies from friends and families some allowed to appeal to the Loyalty Review Board others the rich could appeal to the court would take years for the procedure suspicion of disloyalty constitutes guilt instant dismissal from gov t service loss of pay ruined career hard for traitors to be hired by private corps friends would avoid from feardisgust of knowing someone unAmerican expulsion from socialprofessionalorganizations family subject to socialphysical abuse some committed suicide ruined marriages 61 0 states also set up loyalty review procedures to show their patriotism teachers school personnels industry workers union leaders subject to inves ga on 0 Executive Order 9835 spread fear and suspicion in American society millions sent through the loyalty boards 201 people by Dec 1949 dismissed as security risks sabotageespionage not found at all 62 no matter how distasteful opinions are it doesn t diminish the person s nationality Ex traitors in England not called unEnglishjust English traitors fear fueled by the Alger Hiss case 0 originated during the political struggle before the 1948 election 0 Republicans used the House Committee on UnAmerican Activities to accuse Democrats of harboring Communists 0 Chambers accused 9 former Democrat members one accused was Alger Hiss entered gov t service in the 1930s director of special political affairs in the State Dept adviser to FDR at the Yalta Conference drafted the Charter of the United Nations at Dumbarton Oaks conference retired to become head of the Carnegie Endowment for International Peace if Chambers was correct reveals corruption and treason in the highest levels of gov t I Chambers couldn t stick to one story Democrats still won and Truman reelected victory might have been due to public revulsion of Republican tactics O 0 Chambers continued his accusations against Hiss brought out 60 secret State Dept documents he claims was given to him by Hiss in the 30s led the committee to his farm when he had microfilms of more documents hidden in a pumpkin statute of limitations prohibits prosecution of crimes after a lapse of 7 years 13 yrs already so the charge was perjury supreme justices respected educators high gov t officials secretary of state all showed up to be character witnesses for Hiss 1st trial was undecided a 2nd trial put in place the loss of China was believed to be the fault of the American gov t America had sent its people to train the Chinese military under Chiang Kaishek and yet it fell to Mao corruption in the gov t wasn t considered as a reason for the nation s fall to communism a month later 9231949 Truman declares that the USSR has an atomic device 0 0 people refuse to believe Russia has intelligent scientists instead insists it was treason and espionage in the US gov t that gave knowledge of the atomic device to the Soviets 10141949 11 leaders of the American Communist Party found guilty of conspiring to teach the necessity of overthrowing the American gov t by violence and force 67 I the party was the most useless inactive inefficient organization in the world yet fear blinded the public 1211950 Hiss on 2nd trial found guilty 0 O Roosevelt and Truman administration infested with traitors and spies I in truth few spies in the US I later uncovered by the FBI working with the BR Secret Service 0 English arrested physicist Klaus Fuchs who had once worked in the atomic lab in New Mexico on charges of espionage for USSR 0 capture of Harry Gold David Greenglass Morton Sobel Julius and Ethel Rosenberg convicted of conspiracy to commit espionage Rosenbergs executed spies is a common practice used by all nations I info Fuchs gave was worth nothing of importance I the Rosenbergs were employed by gov t labs and installations not members of the US gov t weren t members of the Communist party I arrest of these people didn t prove the existence of a political conspiracy to overthrow the US gov t just as our spies in USSR didn t prove a conspiracy to overthrow the USSR politicians continued to use the paranoia to gain office to pass certain unfair legislation but none dared to take on the battle against communism didn t have the mind and ruthlessness to succeed McCarthy THE ONE 0 McCarthy 1950 Wyoming senator state turned Democrat and Democrats digging upattacking his shady financial transactions reputation in DC not that good needed something else to help him in his senator reelection the wiping out of corruption and communism in the gov t I claims there are 205 people in the gov t that the state dept knows and hasn t taken action yet speech in W Virginia the beginning of his rise to fame 71 I later changed the number to 57 for the media did not give out names initially bc the people weren t suspicious enough yet to be investigated by the FBI instead taunted Truman and the Secretary of state with the list 0 numbers came about 2 years before when in 1946 Secretary of State James Brynes said 205 State Dept employees were undergoing investigation 1947 House Appropriations Committee of the 8th Congress had 57 investigated some were only applying forjobs I McCarthy had no concern about who he would be accusing only that his scandal was now hidden and he became famous 0 numbers would soon be discredited the list he held at W Virginia was revealed by McCarthy to his friend as an old laundry list CH 7 The Senator Becomes an lsm 0 some people voted for Eisenhower because they believed a Republican presidential victory would stop McCarthy since McCarthy s main purpose of hunting out communism was for the Republican senator s seat 0 Eisenhower also really detested McCarthy 0 people hoped a Republican president would soothe the Republicans who in their desperation to gain back their power had embraced the Menace o assumptions a mistake o McCarthy an independent demagogue didn t depend on the Republican party for prestige I prestige maintained by medianews breaks on attacks on the US gov t o overestimated Eisenhower s moral courage and political acumen 0 failed to see that the emotionshysteria triggered by a decade of Menace peddling 117 could not be diminished by just one political victory o 1952 Republicans win control of both houses in Congress and now assigned committee posts 0 McCarthy awarded for his services to become chairman of the Senate Committee on Gov t Operations to go over operations of gov t dept reorganize bureaus audit finances investigate graft and etc o membership to the Senate Internal Security Committee in charge of protecting the US frm the Menace denied to McCarthy 0 Republicans believed by doing so McCarthy would no longer be able to do any harm but they underestimated him I McCarthy noticed the Permanent Subcommittee on Investigations originally concerned with only exposing corruption in gov t had power in investigating nearly anything 0 named himself chairman of this committee and abandoned duties in the parent Committee on Gov t Operations determined that his committee would steal the spotlight from all rival investigating committees I hired 2 young men age 26 Roy Cohn and G David Schine later became the most notorious team to stand on the American political stage 0 Roy hired as chief counsel to McCarthy s committee prodigy law degree from Columbia at 19 yrs old assistant to the US attorney of NY prosecuted underworld malfeasance assisted in prosecution of the Rosenbergs and communist leaders 0 lust to defend the nation matched by lust for personal glorification SIMILAR to McCarthy I David scion of hotelchain owner chief consultant to McCarthy playboy wrote a pamphlet defining what communism is but the facts were all mixed up and inaccurate in it 119 McCarthy s new mission to investigate Communist infiltration of the Voice of America radio propaganda instrument of the State Dept s International Information Administration 0 charges had to do with the placement of the Voice s shortwave transmitters Baker East and Baker West who were built to break through the Russian jamming areas to deliver the Voice s message behind the Iron Curtain 119 o hearings began in 2161953 Roy s prodding implied conspiracies McCarthy implied that the transmitters were mislocated on purpose experts who supported its current location were not invited to testify and some views were often distorted and misrepresented to make it appear as if he was backing up McCarthy 0 State Dept shutdown the program which was also a part of the International Information Administration in charge of overseeing American libraries I new Secretary of State John Dulles issued that no material by any Communists will be used for any IIA media 121 I Roy and David sent to check compared the Russian Cultural Center s library to IIA library and found Mark Twain in both thus having proof that the IIA library had subversives people in Europe disgusted by the two many IIA personnel resigned IIA libraries were said to have many works of communists one of the authors was the cousin of the Secretary of State the works of these writers were bannedburned and hidden in basements 0 similar to Hitler o Elsenhower gave a speech at Dartmouth telling students to read whatever they desired and not to burn books but when rebuked by McCarthy he retreated and told reporters he approved of the destruction of books against the US 123 McCarthy controls president I IIA was disbanded and a new organization the US Information Agency was created Eisenhower admin seemed to be the errand boy for McCarthy and McCarthy the errand boy for Roy and David whose judgment he relied on o to break this hold he appointed JB Matthews as the executive director of the permanent subcommittee s investigative staff had previously provided the intellectual knowledge for the Hearst press s antiCommunist crusades I claimed that the largest group supporting communists in the US was the Protestant clergymen 7000 as spies dupes 124 o McCarthy overstepped himself had attacked and degraded every American official life generals presidents public servants now God I Eisenhower the Democrats and religious Republicans rose up to criticize McCarthy I under pressure Matthews was fired but insisted in keeping Roy 3 Democrats walked out then on 7101953 3 other Democratic senators Jackson McClellan and Symington all Democrats gone from committee o 2 major events for McCarthy 0 Selective Service Admin notified that David would be joining the US army better way to defend the republic than harassing people 0 McCarthy marries his assistant Jean Kerr on 9291953 and adopts a daughter Tierny I happy marriage and family life 0 next target in hunting the Menace was the Army Signal Corp labs and installations at Fort Monmouth New Jersey 0 dealt with highlevel top secret research 0 evidence of espionagesubversion would touch a vital nerve investigation done in the US Federal Courthouse in NYC closed hearings began 1081953 0 attorney s not allowed to speak clients were questioned with McCarthy s assumptions and imagination deductive reasoning if this then that 127 0 some clients urged by lawyers to invoke the 5th Amendment I McCarthy and Roy started shouting Fifth Amendment Communists 127 0 using constitutional rights was apparently evidence of communism o the accused had no way of answering the 00s did not know what was the exact definition of affiliation with communism the evidence brought up so the best option was to use the 5th amendment 128 0 people would assume guilt because there was something to hide 0 Professor Lamont from Columbia university simply stated that he is a loyal american and had no affiliations with communism refused to answer any other questions by using the 1st Amendment his private beliefs and opinions cannot be pried by the gov t 1953 I McCarthy wanted a charge of contempt of Congress I the Justice Dept intervened and decided in Lamont s favor because of the illegality of the investigation Congress never gave authority to the committee to conduct investigations on subversive activities 130 brought up the question of constitutional rights to the Court of Appeals who a year later refused to rule on the question about rights 0 McCarthy unconcerned about rights only of gaining publicity so even when no spiessecurity risk was found in Fort Monmouth it didn t matter to him I became a legend McCarthyism defined the spectrum of redbaiting I McCarthy gave small concession to the Democrats that left the committee said they would be given proper say on the firing and hiring of staff 0 Last great victory 221954 Senate voted 851 to give McCarthy funds to continue his investigations only Arkansas Democratic Senator Fulbright refused CH 8 The Climate of Fear Effect of McCarthyism on American life beyond just the destruction the committees and subcommittees caused McCarthyism only fueled the machinery the US gov t had already built to persecute suspect citizens published its workings distributed its benefits 0 Legislative branch House UnAmerican Activities Committee HUAC founder of gov t witch hunting committees 0 Senate had the Senate Internal Security Committee headed by Democrat Sen McCarran in 1952 later by Rep Senator Jenner 0 passed the Security Act of 1950 5 membr Subversive Activities Board established with authority to examine American minds for treason provided the registration of American communists and other subversives as agents of a foreign power 134 construction of concentration camps for the incarceration of anyone found subversive in times of a national emergency executive branch had loyalty review boards set by Truman Treasury agents the Secret Service the CIA the FBI headed by J Edgar Hoover victims of McCarthyism not all by McCarthy but the other branches of the gov t too informers accused others of guilt knowing they could avoid charges of perjury Professor Lattimore who had defended himself and won in 1950 was called up to court again in 21952 with evidence stolen from the Institute of Pacific Relations where he once worked McCarran and his committee bullied and took away all rights the accused had 0 not given time to think no rest at most allowed to say about 8 lines throughout 9 days of interrogations 136 o committee determined to force Lattimore to commit perjury accused for not knowing someone was a communist 137 Federal Judge Youngdahl saw this as a violation of the 1st Amendment but the Justice under pressure from McCarran decided to send it to the Court of Appeals who backed Youngdahl 0 Justice Dept dropped the case 6281955 and charges on Lattimore after more struggles where Youngdahl defended him that the Amendments were being violated 138 I thousands of dollars spent in legal fees years spent in suspense and anguish though innocent made such a controversial figure no gov t employment possible newspapers made certain McCarthy and his cases made the headlines the victims were never heard exceptions Washington Post New York Times New York Post St Louis Post John Carter Vincent 1952 employed by State Dept since 1924 director of far eastern affairs in 1945 believed to be a spy bc of his association with Lattimore State Dept found nothing suspicious national publicity damaged his usefulness as a representative abroad not wanting to lower himself to fight McCarthy he returned to the US and retired 0 State Dept still attempted to defend its employees until Eisenhower and Dulles became in charge of the dept 139 John Paton Davies Jr warned of the communist triumph in China and urged that the US maintain communication with Mao to drive a wedge bw sinorussian cordality 0 111953 McCarthy that Davies be fired Davies had been before 8 loyalty boards already and cleared of suspicion each time declared innocent of any communist affinity of 9th loyalty board but said to be indiscreet about his advocacy of ideas 0 asked to resign by Dulles when he refused fired 1141954 0 15 yrs later 11969 arrested for being given a security clearance 0 fear in Washington bureaucracy prevented Kennedy and Johnson from doing anything every person in the nation affected in some way local boards created to show their patriotism o told they were without a job with no reason 0 given no opportunity to protest taking years to get a reinvestigation which by then no longer mattered because the boss wouldn t rehire the person for the job again 0 buying a certain newspaper being once in a club donating to a particular event knowing someone related to someone could result in subversiveness I 10 million Americans asked these questions background check done witch hunt flight from law and constitutional rights was brought to the the home I guilty until proven innocent not informed of charges accusers denied to his files and papers hard to prove complete innocence accused could appeal a verdict from the courts but would require years of waiting and 3533 most couldn t afford 144 atmosphere of dread and suspicion spread far o industries weeded out suspects before they were even hired using private investigators 0 entertainment industries refused to hire anyone mentioned on blacklists I Ex radio actress Madeline Lee acted as a baby on radio accused of being associated with a communist organization years ago and blacklisted in 1953 I 3 other actresses blacklisted because of her one for having the same name one for looking like her one for having the same acting role 144 0 teachers professors easily smeared and blacklisted in a time when ideas were suspect I universities were funded by the state most of the time didn t want to enrage state investigative committees so often fired educators who used the 5th Amendment in their trial I most teachers refused to discuss any controversial ideas in class and among themselves I some peoplestudents ratted out on educators I universities fell silent in the 1950s creating the silent generation with graduates who were afraid to speak on a public issue sought refuge in the anonymity of corporate employment devoted talents in search of conformity and security 145 o polls found that people were afraid of even signing a petition with the Declaration of Independence on it said it was subversive silent majority gave no reason 0 not all national hysteria caused by McCarthy but he contributed to the panic I generated headlines keeping the Menace on headlines for several years I the most powerful legislative and executive bodies in the country feared him I his success emboldened thousands of McCarthyite minds to adopt his tactics o if he could use bullying slander recklessness to gain his office others could too 146 0 some committed suicide fearing they would be next to be investigated 0 Ex Raymond Kaplan engineer for the Voice of America 0 You see once the dogs are set upon you everything you have done from the beginning of time is suspect 147 It is astounding how quickly McCarthy was able to gain influence and lay the foundations of McCarthyism a fear that will transcend for many years leaving trails of injustice It was understandable that during a time of great crisis many constitutional rights were discarded to give the legislative and executive branches power to act but the magnitude and devastation left behind to unveil hidden communist spies was too high of a cost It was clear that many senators and congressmen opposed McCarthy s ways including President Eisenhower and yet when it came time to do something such as deciding on the fundings for McCarthy s committee only one senator was willing to stand up against him Why is it that few ever spoke up What are some other factors other than fear that are preventing people from protesting How has traces of McCarthyism remained today
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