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Bio 1500 WEEK-5 9/29-10/2 Class notes WSU

by: seanc

Bio 1500 WEEK-5 9/29-10/2 Class notes WSU BIO 1500

Marketplace > Wayne State University > Biology > BIO 1500 > Bio 1500 WEEK 5 9 29 10 2 Class notes WSU
Basic Life Diversity
Daniel M. Kashian

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Super clear,concise, and comprehensive typed class notes including all the important stuff.
Basic Life Diversity
Daniel M. Kashian
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by seanc on Saturday October 17, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1500 at Wayne State University taught by Daniel M. Kashian in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 90 views. For similar materials see Basic Life Diversity in Biology at Wayne State University.


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Date Created: 10/17/15
Biology 1500 FALL SEMESTER 2015 INSTRUCTOR DR DAN KASHIAN 30th September 2015 Introduction to Fungi Oi eating Fungi 0 Scientists experimented in Wisconsin 0 Three piles of dung and covered with enzyme bacteria and fungi respectively and covered with tarps 0 All tarps opened after 6 weeks with all piles deaddark and stinky except the pile covered with mushroom O Fungi able to breakdown petroleum into carbohydrates 0 Fungi made the pile a little oasis of life 0 Fungi are a series of gateway organisms which open the door for other biological communities Fungi are highly advanced in some cases and take the full advantage of this biological world Fungi are really diverse but they can share some common characteristics Common Fungal characteristics 0 Heterotrophs Absorb nutrients from substrates by secreting digestive enzymes 0 Multicellular fungi have multicellular growth consisting of mycelium further made up of filaments called hyphae Unicellular fungi yeast Hyphae can be of different types Septate and Aseptate Septate Hyphae are divided by septae cross walls Aseptate Hyphae are continuous A mass of connected hyphae Mycelium Mycelium grows on various materials Interwoven hyphae produce reproductive structures in major groups Cell walls are made up of hard insoluble material called chitin Same chitin is found in exoskeleton of arthropods Close evolutionary relationship Chitin makes them resistant to a lot of drugs General Biology of Fungi Fungi have a dikaryon stage when they have two haploid nucleus in one cell1 N1 N Either monokaryotic or dikaryotic Undergo Nuclear mitosis Asexual and Sexual reproduction present Sexual reproduction Two haploid hyphae of similar mating type fuse togethersome have dikaryon stage and some form a zygote immediately Typically has to be two positive mating types Spores are the most common form of reproduction in Fungi Spores can be produced by either by asexual or sexual reproduction Spores are very tiny and can stay in air for a long time Either pathogenic or we eat them When spores land on a suitable substrate they give rise to a mass called mycelium Have external digestion Fungus are very good at breaking down cellulose and lignin Their metabolism supports them to breakdown dead organic materialbreakdown anything that has carbon Fungal Relationships Five major fungal phyla based on the mode of sexual reproduction Chytridiomycota Zygomycota Glomeromycota Ascomycota Basidiomycota 99quotPUIV Deuteromycota Nr 1 Chytridiomycota aOnly group with flagella bBoth Haploid and Diploid generationsMulticelular Alternation of generations cAsexua reproduction stays 2n whereas sexual leads to 1n stage dMost closely related to actual fungi e No Dikaryon stage 2 Zygo mycota aDecomposing and pathogenic fungi Diverse No septae in the hyphae except when reproducing Sexual reproduction when gametangia fuse together Gametangia have bunch of nuclei floating around Dikaryon Stage Fusion of nuclei leads to Zygosporangium Asexual reproduction is the most common form N9WJgtP Nf Most of the life cycle is haploid 3 Glomeromycota JgtP Nf Form intracellular associations with plant roots arbuscular mycorrhizae No evidence of sexual reproduction Symbiotic relationship with plant roots Plant has now an extended root system and fungi gets food from the plant 4 Ascomycota 9 PONF P JgtW Contains 75 of the fungi Lot of plant pathogen and animal pathogens Cup Fungi lncludes penicillin Named after reproductive structu re Ascus Ascocarp is the interwoven hyphae and ascus is present in it Asexual reproduction is pretty common Conidia are the asexual spores and they allow rapid colonization Conidia are produced at the tip of conidiophores 10 Chestnut blight and Dutch elm diseases wiped out specific trees in USA 11 Single celled fungus in Ascomycota Yeast Yeast Reproduce by budding asexual 0 Important for the ability to ferment carbohydrates 0 important in genetics research 5 Basidiomycota JgtP Nf lncludes Mushrooms puffballs jelly fungi plant pathogens truffles Named for their sexual reproductive structure Gills are lined with Basidia spores germinate to form monokaryotic hyphae that creates a primary mycelium 5 if different mating types dikaryotic or secondary mycelium 6 Mushroom fruiting body Basidiocarps 6 Deuteromycota Economically important molds Sexual reproduction not identified Penicilliumformer now ascomycota Penicillium produces blue gunk in blue cheese Aspergillus used to ferment soy to make soy sauce You can have hyphae of different type PONF P JgtP J they have parasexuality genetically distinct nuclei exchanging portions of their chromosomes with each other 02 October 2015 O Michigan s Humongous Fungus O Armillaria bulbosa a basidiomycete O 38 acres in size 0 150010000 years old 0 likely 100 tons Armillaria ostoyae A Basidiomycete Found an even bigger fungus in washington 2200 acres 2400 years old Get big because it is dry area and have noless competition to grow huge supposed to be edible 1 Ecology of Fungi Fungi s function is more important than what they are 1 principle decomposers in our ecosystems 2 only organisms that can break down cell wallscellulose and lignin 3 recycling carbon 0 Fungal symbioses relation bw fungus and other organism Obligate cannot live without symbiosis or facultativecan live without symbiosis pathogenpa rasitehost sufferers Commensal one neutralone benefits Mutualism both benefit 0 Plants and Mycorrhizae 1Mycorrhizae are mutualistic relationship bw fungi and plants 2Found at the roots of 90 of vascular plants 3A lot of plants can grow wo myco ifthey have all the essential nutrients 4Mycorrhizae helps extend the root system 5Can grow into the root or they can form a sheath around the root 6Help to form a bigger crosssection area to obtain more nutrients from the larger volume of soil Fungi in return get food carbs and shelter from the plant 0 Arbuscular Mycorrhizae endomycorrhizae O Ecto mycorrhizae Arbuscular mycorrhizae penetrate into the root more common of the two types found in 70 of plant species found even in fossils This relationship helped plants move on to the land 991WN Really important in tropics due to very low amount of nutrients in the soil Ectomycorrhizae 1 Form a sheath around the root but don t penetrate 2 Terrestrial fungi Endophytic Fungi 1 A fungus that live in the intercellular spaces inside the plants 2 Actually grow inside the plants 3 When present in plants they help produce toxic substance that helps plants escape from the predators 4 This fungi helps plants with defense Ecology of Fungi Lichens Symbiotic association between a fungus and a photosynthetic partnermostly algae eg reindeer moss Most of the body is fungi and algae lives inside the body Fungus creates the special envelope like filaments that house algae fungi are protecting algae and bacteria in return algae performs photosynthesis lichens are really durable they can inhabit the harshest habitats where they are often the first colonists they are really diverse with 3 main types 0 foliose grows on tree bark O crustose grows on rocks 0 fruticose grows on soil Really good air pollutionquality indicators Present only where the air is puregood quality Fungal parasites and pathogens 0 Can spoil plants and trees and food 0 Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis is responsible for the worldwide decline in amphibian populations 0 Geomyces destructans causes white nose syndrome 0 White nose syndrome is responsible for the death and decline of bats across the eastern US 0 Bat to Bat transmission


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