Ou MUNM 113 Notes exam 3
Ou MUNM 113 Notes exam 3 1113 MUNM
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THE RISE OF THE SYMPHONY (chapter 10 pages 159-167) -One of the most important developments of western instrumental was the emergence of the Symphony. -Symphony is a genre usually exemplifying the following characteristics: instruments only, multi-movements, lofty musical ambitions, and an abstract subject matter; some exceptions include 1. Composer use singers in symphonies (Beethoven, Mendelssohn, and Mahler all did at times.) 2. a single long movement.(The finished composer Jean Sibelius wrote one) 3. Intentionally trivial rather than ambitious. (Mozart’s father, Leopold wrote a “toy” symphony requiring the use of all manner of toy instruments). 4. or the corporation of concrete story lines. ( rather than abstract subject) -Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809) is called “the father of the symphony.” Such titles aren’t particularly interesting, and this one also happens to be false. The earliest symphonies were written by Italian composers as overtures for their operas. An overture is a piece of instrumental music that comes before a dramatic work such as an opera. Italian opera audiences were noisy. If the composer wanted the beginning of his opera to be heard, he learned than overture gave the audience fair warning that the opera was about to start. To help ensure this function of the overture, Composers typically began overtures with several loud chords called hammerstrokes. GIOVANNI SAMMARTINI and JOHAN WENZEL STAMITZ -Giovanni Sammartini (1700-1775) composer in the Italian city of Milan organized performances of symphonies by themselves; thus, works once meant to introduce operas became separate, independent musical genre. This practice of performing only symphonies was an especially good idea during Lent and Advent, periods of the church, when opera was banned. Sammartini oversaw what known as an academia of enthusiasts for instrumental music. Many member of academia, or music-loving society, were members of the nobility. Sammartini began writing symphonies meant to stand alone, and not as a overtures to operas. Thus the symphony was born, and if one must identify a father of the symphony, probably best to choose Sammartini. Sammartini’s symphonies were generally quite short, and usually included only string instruments. -Johan Wenzel Stamitz (1717-1757) was the composer most closely associate with the rise of the symphony. Stamitz played violin in the court orchestra at Mannheim. The elector at Mannheim was Duke Karl Theodore, who wanted to establish within his hands an enlightened monarchy. Toward that purpose he built institutes for the study of language and science, along with a fine salon for the performance of symphonies. Generally the aristocrats played whist (actually card game bridge), while the middle class visitors stood behind velveteen ropes. The orchestra would have been located in a corner. Eyewitness accounts of visitors to symphony concerts at Mannheim are far more to mention the Duke and his guests rather than the orchestra. One visitor who was more interested in music than observed the habits of the aristocrats was Charles Burney. Burney published two volumes chronicling his music travel from Europe. He remarked that the Mannheim orchestra was like “an army or general. Each player as suited to managing an entire campaign as to fight one.” He marveled at the discipline of the group and the superb compositional craft of Stamitz. Stamitz took some of the best players with him to Paris to present public concerts. So he inspired French musicians. FRANZ JOSEPH HAYDN (1732-1809) He did much more than composes symphonies. He composed more than 110 symphonies during his long life. He also composed concertos, operas, masses, oratorios, keyboard sonatas, and more. He invented the genre of the string quartet. He also composed more than one hundred pieces for a now defunct string instrument called “baryton.” That was the favorite instrument of his most important employer, the Prince Nicholas Esterhazy. Haydn was the consummate Enlightenment era composer. He has a function in society: to make music for the important occasions in the life of his employer the prince. Along the way he also managed to introduce innovations. Haydn was educated at the St. Stephen’s Choir school in Vienna. At the school Haydn first learned to sing in the church choir. After his voice change during adolescence, he learned to play musical instruments in order to serve in the church’s orchestra. After reaching age, he was dismissed from the student orchestra. He made his living playing string instruments in various orchestras in Vienna. After a brief stint in the service of a Hungarian count named von Morzin, Haydn joined the service of Prince Paul Anto Esterhazy. Prince Esterhazy was one of the wealthiest men in the Austro-Hungarian Empire. The Empire had its capital in Vienna (he didn’t have the total authority over the empire, the individual aristocrats reserved considerable independence). The Esterhazy family had huge land in what is now Hungary (made his family extremely wealthy and influential). Prince Paul Anton Esterhazy did not enjoy the service of Haydn. His death in 1762, one year after Haydn joined the Esterhazy service, resulted in his brother Nicholas ascendancy to the position of prince. From 1762until 1766, the prince spent much time in Vienna while a new country house was built. In 1766 when it was completed Esterhazy’s, along with Haydn, moved into the country house called Esterhaza (small version of the palace of Versailles). Prince Nicholas Esterhazy was a tremendous devotee of music. The prince played the baryton. a. Haydn’s service at Esterhaza: the Esterhazy family had small number of musicians, Haydn persuaded the prince to hire more musicians. In addition to after dinner concerts, the prince also liked to use the household’s opera stage from time to time. Haydn was extremely busy man during his years at Esterhaza. In any given week, he might organize three chamber music gatherings with the prince, three evening concerts, a special mass for Sunday, and a opera. The prince much preferred to hear new music rather than old. Haydn’s contract finds serving much like a trusted personal servant to the prince. Haydn had free time to meet with his friends. Haydn and Mozart played together in a string quartet from 1780 until roughly 1790. The principal disadvantage of the contract between Haydn and Esterhazy was the fact that the prince owned all of Haydn’s compositions. b. Haydn Symphony No 56 CD2 # 6: this is a relative obscure but quiet example of Haydn’s music. This piece was composed at Esterhaza for the purpose of entertaining the prince and a large number of guess during hunting season. As befits a piece written for the out-of doors, this symphony requires several brass instruments as well as double reed instruments. The brass players likely came from the hunting establishment of the prince’s estate. Huntsmen were generally versed in playing the horn in order to call to the hounds. A large sheep ranch surrounded Esterhaza, so Haydn likely enjoyed the service of some of the shepherds to play the double-reed instruments. Since ancient times, double-reed instruments have been associated with shepherds and other folk with pastoral occupations. The symphony expresses a happy confidence. The orchestra at Esterhaza existed not only because the prince liked music. The orchestra was intended to confirm the rational order that the prince sough to manifest all around him. The symphony, like the beautiful house (Esterhaza) and well-tended grounds, confirmed the power of the prince, and marked the willing submission of those around him. The writer E.T.A. Hoffmann described Haydn as “before the fall.” c. Sonata Form: the form of this movement is Haydn’s favorite, sonata form. When composer have no text to set, there is a problem of how to organize abstract musical material in a pleasing way. Baroque composers like Vivaldi and Bach favored the ritornello form, its recurrent material serving to orient the listener’s attention as recognizable material periodically returns. Another favored Baroque form was the fugue. The texture of equal voices presenting a fabric of polyphonic entrances captured the Baroque imagination. The gallant style has no use whatsoever for the fugue. The premium placed by Rousseau and others on natural melody led them to favor a homophonic texture. With a homophonic texture, the melody is easier to fixate upon, since there is never more than one important melody presented at a time. The ritornello form continue to inspire Haydn’s generation, although the mainly reserved it for the concerto. Both the ritornello form by Vivaldi and Bach are concertos as well. READ PAGE 164, and sonata form page 48,49,50. As in most Classical period symphonies, there are three movements that follow; a second “slow movement,” a “minuet and trio movement” as the third, and a lighthearted, fast movement to conclude. Each movement is self- contained, introducing new thematic material that is explored in different ways and resolved by the end. All movements provide interesting contrasts of themes, tempos, meters, forms, moods, and so forth, to each other. d. Haydn’s career after 1790: In 1790, Prince Nicholas I Esterhazy died. Haydn served him during his entire reign as prince. Now his son Nicholas II took the position of prince. He kept Haydn, but he was free to leave Esterhaza on their own business. Moreover, all the music that Haydn would write from this point forward belonged to Haydn alone. Haydn immediately took up residence in Vienna. There he composed for many aristocrats and also took students, among them was Ludwig van Beethoven. Haydn made two important journeys to England under the auspices of the concert promoter Johann Piter Salomon. These two journeys were successful, both financially and artistically. In addition to twelve new symphonies written in the most modern and formidable style, Haydn composed oratorios for his London audience. Haydn was awarded honorary degrees at Cambridge and Oxford, and enthusiastic journalist called him the Shakespeare of music (high praise indeed in England). Ludwig Van Beethoven 1770-1827 (page 178-188) Beethoven was comfortably into two periods; Beethoven inherited the ideals of Classicism and helped to chart the vague boundaries of musical Romanticism. His career reveals the limitations of two ways of approaching the study of music history. On the one hand, his career (much likes that of Monteverdi) refuses to sit nicely into one or another style period. The result should be a healthy measure of skepticism for the whole idea of style periods. On the others hand, his career underscores the dangers of focusing on individual heroic figures in the arts rather than looking at all that transpired in a particular time and place. His career manifests a gradual stylistic transition, but in doing so makes it appear that he made the transition somehow alone. Hi didn’t like J.S. Bach, Beethoven was interested in all that transpired around him. Classicism and Romanticism are not two stylistic periods, but two sensibilities. The Classicism does not disappear from European music nor does Romanticism ever perfectly supplant it. Mozart was called romantic before anyone else, yet no one would exclude him as a central figure in the development on the Classical ideals of naturalness and formal clarity. Beethoven’s Youth: Beethoven came from a musical family. His father sang in the chapel of the Archbishop in the city of Bonn in western Germany. Beethoven’s father was by all accounts a brutal man who pushed his talented son in the direction of music. His father was his first teacher. He would eventually have to sue his father for custody over his brothers when Beethoven’s father lost his position owing to drunkenness. Biographers interested in psychology would come to link his bad feeling toward his father to a general tendency in Beethoven to disrespect authority of all kinds. This tendency in Beethoven to disrespect authority ran to his political leanings. Beethoven lived in Bonn, a city near the frontier between Germany and France, and was nineteen years old when the French revolution unfolded. He hoped that the revolution would eventually spill over the borders of France and would lead to a pan-European revolution in which all those who ruled by privilege of birth would be toppled in favor a democratic system in which the governors served pleasure of the governed. Beethoven began playing music professionally as a very youth man. He played organ and later harpsichord in the orchestra of the Elector. At the suggested of one of elector Beethoven was sent to Vienna to study music with Mozart. It was in 1787. Mozart said “watch this young man closely, he will make a great noise someday.” Mozart did not take Beethoven as student. Beethoven returns Bonn with debts to show for the elector’s troubles. Beethoven in Vienna: five years later Beethoven was sent to Vienna to study music with Franz Joseph Haydn. Haydn recognized Beethoven’s talent, but he was an indifferent teacher. Beethoven, for his part, had become more interested in dancing masters and purchasing fashionable wigs rather that attending his studies. Both Haydn and Beethoven became disenchanted with one another. Beethoven did not dedicate his first published works to his teacher. There were string quarters, a genre Haydn had popularized. Tradition dictated that Beethoven pay his teacher honor. Finally Haydn wrote to the Archbishop Elector of Cologne (Beethoven’s employer) to inform him that Beethoven needed a larger stipend in order to live in Vienna. He sent along some of Beethoven’s recent compositions, which Beethoven had brought to lesson with Haydn as illustration of his progress. The Elector’s reply to Haydn and inform that Beethoven had badly misrepresented the stipend he was received from the Elector, more importantly; all the pieces Haydn sent were already known in Bonn before Beethoven ever left for Vienna. The Elector concludes that Beethoven return home immediately, since he obviously wasn’t making any progress in Vienna. Haydn felt humiliated. Beethoven had been lying to Haydn, and that ended good relations between them. Beethoven ignored the elector’s request that he return. After that Beethoven rounded out his education by studying counterpoint with the organist George Albrechburger and vocal writing with the opera specialist Antonio Salieri. He then went about the business composing and playing the piano for a living. Today, scholars generally agree that Beethoven’s career falls into three distinct periods The Early period (1794-1802) was Beethoven least remarkable. He labored in the prevailing style of the day by emphasizing formal clarity and the modesty of a certain taste-bound naturalness. The influence of Haydn is felt powerfully during this period, for like his older teacher. He lacked Mozart’s facility with memorable melody. During the early period, Beethoven enjoyed the increasing support of aristocratic music lovers. Beethoven did not admire them. In his diaries he called them “the prince rabble”. Also Beethoven wrote “There are many princes, counts, and barons; but only one Beethoven.” Beethoven was politically and philosophically committed to the democratic notion that an individual’s actual accomplishments mattered more than inherited privileges. Beethoven “Heroic” period (1802-1816) or the middle period. Unlike the early period, Beethoven middle period is markedly distinct from the prevailing tastes of the day. His style is marked by greater striving for forceful expressive means and a general expansion of the scope and emotional weight of such forms as the sonata and such genres as the symphony. In addition to the generous support of music- loving aristocrats, Beethoven made his living by publishing his works and promoting them through subscription concerts where he also played piano. At this time Napoleon Bonaparte, the protector of the French Revolution, dissolved the Holy Roman Empire and with it position of Elector, since they elected the Emperor. Just Beethoven mistreated his first employer; he also mistreated his many publishers. Beethoven was selling publications rights to more than one publisher. He was discovered and the justice had ground their course. Beethoven enjoyed legal privilege in the Austro-Hungarian courts. He has a letter of introduction from Count Waldstein that called him “Ludwig von Beethoven” rather than Van Beethoven. This made him seem like an aristocrat. In the Austrian-Hungarian Empire, aristocrats were entitled to have their legal business heard in a court where the judge was an aristocrat and where commoners, such a music publishers, suffered a real disadvantage in pressing cases against aristocrats. While Bee Beethoven could be unscrupulous, ungenerous, and disloyal, he compensated by being supremely talented. There were forces to work in Beethoven’s life. Beethoven was losing his hearing. His deafness was source of formidable anxiety. Between 1799-1802 when Beethoven wrote the Heiligenstadt Testament, he underwent a primitive version of electroshock therapy and took doses of mercury, a terrible toxin once believe to possess curative power. Beethoven express to his brothers in a letter known as “The Heiligenstadt Testament,” that he often though of ending his wretched life. He wrote, “Only art, held me back.” Eventually Beethoven turns to the topic of suicide. In contrast to his tough Beethoven’s generosity lay in his certainty that he had something valuable to share with the world. For many critics the middle period begins for Beethoven with his Piano Sonata No.17 in D minor. This has come to be known as “Tempest.” This dramatic piece features an oddly shaped sonata form including the insertion of a strange, recitative-like section at the end of the development. This section, drawing on operatic ideals but obviously no singer, draws the listener’s attention to the plaintive melody, which seems to cry out against a cruel fate. Composed at roughly the same time as The Heiligenstadt Testament, this sonata reflects the growing tendency among nineteenth-century composers to reflect their personal feelings and biographical details in their music. One can learn a Haydn as a person by listening to his Symphony No.56. This symphony was configured for the purposes of Prince Esterhazy, not Haydn. That’s not to say that Haydn wasn’t perfectly glad to compose for the Prince purpose, only that Beethoven’s tendency to reflect his own concerns rather that his audience marks a distinction that underscores the singularity of Beethoven’s middle period. Beethoven admired Napoleon Bonaparte. Beethoven watched Napoleon’s career with interest. He and others admirers hoped that the French Revolution would be exported across Europe. This did not happen. Instead, Napoleon declared himself Emperor of France. Beethoven saw this as a betrayal of the ideals of democracy. Beethoven had initially dedicated his Symphony No. 3 to Napoleon Bonaparte, a person whom he early admired, before scribbling over the name with an ink pen and rededicating it to an anonymous hero; the symphony now known by the word for heroic, “eroica.” Beethoven third symphony has a piece huge in scope. The emotional weight of the work lies not only in its celebration of the ideal of heroism and struggle, but in the music itself. In this piece Beethoven indulges in extremes of dynamic contrast, rhythmic complexity, insistent dissonance, and sophistication of formal plan. While this symphony is unquestionably today, at the first time many listener were baffled by it. Critics found it outside the bounds of good taste and simply too full of Beethoven strivings for singularity and originality. Today those concepts are honored in the arts. In our recorded anthology, we have the first movement of this difficult symphony (CD2 #9) the form is sonata, but that form had never been conceived on such a vast scale previously. The first movement of Beethoven’s heroic symphony opens with two loud chords. The exposition section comprises 155 measures, the development section a titanic 245 measures, the recapitulation 154 measures, and the coda sprawls over a gigantic 135 measures. No large single movement was ever composing before. The piece opens with hammerstrokes, after that a simple triadic theme appears; however, the simplicity of this theme is belied when suddenly the non-harmonic tone of C# is introduced in a melody grounded in E-flat major. This sore note serves as a source of anxiety within the symphony, as though the heroic melody were marred by a single, glaring flaw. In the recapitulation Beethoven will change this theme on its second and all subsequent appearances by omitting the problematic C#. The huge development section contains many unusual features. At one point, Beethoven introduces an entire fugue exposition. He passes through far- flung keys distantly removed from the tonic E-flat. At various points within the exposition section and the development section, Beethoven introduces biting dissonances and vigorous rhythms that work at cross purpose with the prevailing triple meter. These moments are called hemiolas,(rhythms that work at cross purpose with the prevailing meter; a rhythmic alteration of two notes in the place of three, or three notes in the place of two.) At the climax of the development just before the return of the tonic key and the arrival of the recapitulation, Beethoven has one lone horn enter with the heroic theme in the tonic key while all the others instruments play the dominant key. The coda functions as a second development section as Beethoven continues the process of modulation and reconfiguration of his theme. It ends in tonic on a suitably enthusiastic tone befitting a symphony about heroism. Exposition: is the first section of a fugue or a sonata-form movement. Development: the practice of manipulating themes and motives in various ways; it also refers to the section of sonata form in which themes from the exposition undergo this process. Recapitulation: the last section of a sonata-form movement in which all the thematic material of the exposition returns in its original order, however, all of the themes now appear in the tonic. Coda: means, tail; a musical section placed at the end of a piece or movement that does not represent part of a described form such as theme and variations form. Taken together, all these innovations mark the ideals of Beethoven’s heroic period. With his gestures to the history of the genre, his evolving theme, his use of dissonance and hemiola, his unlike moves like rooting a fugue or a new theme into the development, his having the horn player enter the recapitulation early, and his huge coda full of development material. Beethoven points to himself if as an individual creator. These techniques mark Beethoven’s singularity and originality. Beethoven’s Third symphony, typical symphonies of the 1800s is in four movements. The second movement is a funeral march, the third movement minuet was displaced by a livelier scherzo, and the last is based on a set of variations with fugally developed episodes and coda. Other crucial works Beethoven wrote during his middle period include his beloved fifth symphony with its meditation on fate, the heroic opera Fidelio, his pastoral sixth symphony, and his last three piano concertos. Throughout this period, Beethoven’s fame grew and grew. The Late Period (1816-1827) : toward the latter year of his life, Beethoven become isolated and irascible. His deafness was likely the product of a congenital defect, incurable and progressive. He had occasional moments when he could hear a little, but he found these periods more agony than anything. He never married. When his brother died, he sued his sister-in-law for custody of his nephew, and won. The relationship was unfortunate. Beethoven wanted greatness from his nephew, who felt crushed under the weight of his uncle’s alarming expectations. A suicide attempt followed. After that, Beethoven took little or no pleasure from contact with his extended family. Beethoven late style is marked by a renewed concern for a variety of formal plans. A certain serenity finds its way into his music. The impatient and heroic striving of the middle period gives way to eccentric and meditative pieces. He wrote some outstanding examples of the fugue, theme and variations, and sonata form during his late period. His late string quarters and piano sonatas rank among his very best works. Our recorded anthology contains a much celebrated work from late in Beethoven’s career, the first movement of his op. Piano Sonata Number 31 (CD2, #10) this piece features a blurring of Classical structural lines throughout. The contrasting themes are not introduced as conflicting material that need to be repeated, developed, and resolved by the end of the movement. Instead, they are invitations to contemplation. Once the heroic journey commences, there is no looking back. Without repeating the exposition, the development section, which simply repeats the opening motive in different keys, is made to inspire the listener to deeper and deeper thought. This movement consists of yearnings, which appear to transcend worldly matters, and of questions that remain unanswered. His Eroica Symphony seems full of confident certainty; the opus 110 piano sonata seems ready to embrace unfulfilled yearnings for answers to questions so vague that each listener will enter into a personal, subjective relationship with the work. This situation marks the goal of the absolute autonomous artwork. CUANDO ESCUCHES LA CANCION VE A LA PAG 189,190 Y 191 DONDE EXPLICAN LA CANCION. The second movement is a very fast scherzo in F minor. The last movement begins with a slow introduction that is full of instrumental recitatives, which lead into fugues and other decidedly emotional “arioso” melodies. The pieces end with flashy A, Mayor arpeggios moving from high to low notes the piano and back. It is essentially a formal structure. The symphony No. 9 provides Beethoven’s most optimistic statement from the late years of his career. Written in 1824, this piece requires not only a large symphony orchestra but also a chorus and vocal soloist. The overall aim of this finale is a rousing musical call for universal brother-hood. For Beethoven, the symphony changed in terms of its seriousness and social purpose from the days when his teacher Haydn was writing symphonies. Beethoven viewed the symphony as a means of communicating something profound to his times and to posterity. He didn’t write symphonies for social occasions, as his teacher had done. The effect of this different attitude toward the genre is that Haydn composed more than 100 symphonies. In a career of comparable duration, Beethoven wrote only nine. Another reason for the change of Beethoven’s attitude is that he did not have to write many symphonies in order to make a handsome living while Haydn wrote symphonies for a living not to communicate weighty ideas to prosperity. Among Beethoven’s admirers, late period was the brilliant German author E.T.A. Hoffmann (1776-1822). While Hoffmann didn’t not live to hear the nine symphony, he was very much inspired by the previous eight. Hoffmann attributed to Beethoven the power to open the portal to the sublime for the music lover. On the topic of Beethoven’s instrumental music, E.T.A. Hoffmann wrote “Beethoven’s music sets in motion the levers of fear, of awe, of horror, of suffering, and awakens just that infinite longing which is the essence of ROMANTICISM. He is according a completely Romantic composer.” ROMANTICISM CHAPTER ELEVEN, PAGES 193-207 Romantic Sensibility: romanticism maybe be one of the most difficult work to define referring to a stylistic period in music. The Classic period clearly falls within the rational side of the duality, with its premium on balance and simplicity and absorption of Enlightenment rhetoric. The Romantic Period celebrates the irrational forces of intuition, fantasy, and indefinite feeling of longing and nostalgia. Another simplistic useful method of developing a sense of Romanticism lies in looking upon it as the nature expression of post-Enlightenment ideals. The Enlightenment taught that man rational and can understand the world by observing it keenly. When the basic tool of understanding is located in each person’s head, The Enlightenment’s conception of taste tried to be objective through appeals to nature. Yet there isn’t anything particularly objective about the way Rousseau wrote about taste. Romantics slowly allowed subjectivity to replace appeals to objectivity. The Romantics drew the logic for trusting subjectivity from the same source as Rousseau drew the logic of genius submitting to taste, from the Enlightenment, with its locating the meaning of experiences in human rationality and its power to make sense of the world. Romantics are the product of new privileged authority for subjectivity and the power of the individual to reason for himself of herself. Romanticism puts all the intuition and subjectivity of self-styled geniuses. Rousseau argued that taste must regulate genius; the romantics will argue that genius is everything in the creation of art. Romanticism versus Classicism; Like rival sensibilities. The Classical sensibility favors formal clarity and emotional restraint, while Romantics sensibility strives for singular and unfettered creativity that plunges into realms of idealism and fantasy. The main of debate between Classical and Romantics centers on genius and taste. A genius may simple be someone who is good at something at the eyes of someone else. Taste may be not so much word as a linguistic technology designed to enforce that will of the more powerful upon the less powerful, a simple means of silencing a minority on matters of art. Romanticism applied to music: the word first appeared in a dictionary in 1803 when French linguist defined it as “a certain inexpressible something.” Soon after that, the writer E.T.A. Hoffmann applied it to music by describing Mozart, in his opera Don Giovanni. Hoffmann was taken with the singularity of Mozart’s genius and his willingness to defy convention in expressing powerful emotional states. Later Hoffmann applied the term to Beethoven, his favorite composer. Beethoven’s instrumental music clarifies our individuality. Beethoven’s music reveals powers that could overwhelm the individual; yet, those powers do not destroy us. Time and again Romantics will privilege the individual as both creator and as consumer of creations. In actual practice, the music of the Romantics and the Classicists exemplify far more commonalties than differences. The same forms, genres, and essential harmonic language appear in both. These common characteristic have led scholars to label the period from roughly 1700-1900” the common-practice period.” The story of Romanticism should start with Haydn, Mozart, and Beethoven. While Haydn is almost never discussed as Romantic, Hoffmann called him one. His liberation from the service of the prince toward the end of his career demonstrated that a man could live well and serve only himself, provide he possessed sufficient genius to do so. Mozart demonstrated Romanticism’s fascination with uncompromising genius. Mozart premature death caused by his uncompromising ways inspired many Romantics. Romanticism loves to celebrate martyrs to the religion of art, those figures who died young for having been understood or for adhering too closely to their ideals. Beethoven was seen as the supreme Romantic. He enthusiastically undertook reforms in the field of music, bowed to no patron, and stamped the fields of music with the indelible impression of his striving sense of himself as heroic figure. There is three generation of composers: THE FIRST GENERATION OF ROMANTICS (1815-1835): The music of Mozart, Haydn, and Beethoven was still performed far and wide. Theses composers disagree among them. Franz Schubert composed in every genre, while Frederic Chopin wrote almost exclusively for the solo piano. Vincenzo Bellini’s non-operatic works can be counted on one hand, while defining the genre of Hector Berlioz’s creations as almost always problematic. 1. Franz Schubert Vienna (1797-1828): Schubert was born and spent his entire career in Vienna, he lived a short life. He died at 31 through complication from syphilis, a sexually transmitted disease. Perhaps his untimely death lent him an air of tragedy, thus inspiring the Romantics of subsequent generation to dote on his legacy. Like Haydn, Schubert was educated at the Imperial Singing School, Initially he sang in the chorus at Stephen’s cathedral in Vienna. By the time his voice changed, he had learned to play several musical instruments. Including piano, and had a thorough knowledge of musical theory and composition. After Austria’s defeats in Napoleonic Wars, the economy was muddle. Gone were the days when aristocrat could afford a large staff and artisans and artists. But the wealthy could certainly afford to hire Schubert and a few friends to come over aristocratic home for an evening of piano works, art song, and chamber music. These musical evening came known as “SCHUBERTIADS.” Schubert was frustrated by his efforts at composing symphonies and operas. As a symphonist, Schubert emphasized lyricism. His melodies are memorable and easy to sing, and reflect his fascination with the song genre. Unlike Beethoven and Haydn, Schubert avoided short, motific melodies ideal for development. Schubert wrote masses, string quarters, solo piano music, handful concertos, and chamber works of every description. The art song: The most successful in a commercial sense, having sold several thousand copies. This piece is an art song, or “Lied” to use the German term. He composed more than 600 of them. The song takes its text from Goethe, a brilliant German poet. Art song or Lied (definition): the musical setting of a poem, usually, performed by solo voice and piano, in which the performers are expected to contribute significantly to the artistic effect of the poetry. Grerchen Am Spinnrade: CD2 #11 represents a text from Goethe’s epic drama Faust. This drama tells the story of a medieval doctor named Faust who finds himself late in life of regrets and unease. He claim that would trade his immortal soul for a moment’s pure contentment. Suddenly Mephistopheles, the agent of Satan, appears and volunteers to help Faust realize his exchange. Mephistopheles begins his quest to find Faust a moment of pure contentment by transporting him to his youth and the company of a girl he loved name Gretchen. In the drama, Gretchen sings a song while spinning wool, of her excitement on meeting Faust and kissing him. One of Goethe’s many complaints about this song was leveled at the importance to use of the piano to illustrate the scene. Schubert creates an onomatopoetic illustration of the spinning wheel in the piano part with its swirling ostinato ( a musical phrase that is repeated persistently, usually at the same pitch).Goethe also disliked the form of this song. Songs in the 1700s were almost always strophic (when all stanzas of the text in a song are sung to the same music). Schubert introduces modifications in the music so that it will better illustrate the changing mood of Gretchen as the sing. Worse, as far of Goethe was concerned, is Schubert’s making of each modified strophe with a repetition of the line: “my peace is gone, my heart is heavy: I ‘will never find the peace, and never again.” Goethe the poet, certainly could have repeated this lines at the start of each strophe had he wanted to, but he didn’t want to. In order to preserve some connections to the roots of the Lied, Schubert affects what scholars call “Volkstummlichkeit. That means a German word meaning “folk voice-ness,” or in musical terms, when throroughly professionalized music strives to sound like folk song. In Gretchen am Spinnrade, Schubert affects the simplicity of a folk song with strophic structure. BEL CANTO OPERA: the first half of the 1800s in Italian opera was dominated by the style known as “bel canto.” This Italian phrase means “beautiful sinning.” This name sums up the principal goal of Italian opera composers and audiences during this period. 2. Gioachino Rossini ITALIAN (1792-1868) popularized the style of bel canto opera. His first sensational hit as an opera was the serious opera Tancredi. In this opera, Rossini introduced a formal plan for opening of an opera called an introduzzione. In swift succession a good introduzzione orients the audience as to where and when the opera is set and what the crucial takes are within a drama. A principal character is also introduced in the process. Rossini’s comic operas are his best loved today. He had a special gift for musical farce. The Barber of Seville was flop as its debut in Rome. Here is a partial list of stylistic features, priorities, forms, and circumstance that Rossini popularized in opera in addition to the introduzzione: - He made the bel canto style the dominant style throughout Italian opera. - The formal plan for the aria was based on an important tempo change, part way through the aria. Today scholars call Rossini’s approach the “two- tempo aria.”( an aria that is based on an import tempo change partway through; it opens with a “scene,” a section of recitative that advances that action, moves to a “tempo primo,” or first tempo section, which then moves to another called the “tempo di mezzo,” or middle tempo, and concludes with rousing “cabaleta,” a section that caps off the form, giving the “two-tempo ara” three tempi, which makes the label a misnomer.) This form opens with a scene. Cabaleta definition: a section that caps off the form through the return of the tonic, the two-tempo aria end. - Stock situations often arise in Rossini’s opera. - Placing instruments on stage to form a Banda (refers to the instrumentalists placed on stage in Italian opera.) was a favorite device of Rossini’s. Rossini retired at the height of his fame. He and his wife devoted themselves to good food, and died very rich. 3. Vincenzo Bellini: ITALIAN (1801-1835) emerged in southern Italy when Rossini was retired. Bellini like Schubert died young for similar reason. His ten operas were all hits initially. Part of his credit must go to Giuditta Pasta, the soprano for whom he wrote his operas. Eventually they were married. Norma: Bellini created the title of his opera NORMA (1831) for his future wife. The most famous aria from Norma, “Casta diva.” (CD3 #1). This aria provides a clear example of the bel canto style with his dramatic, florid, and astonishing vocal line. It also provides us a glimpse of the two-tempo form popularized by Rossini. The story of Norma revolves around complication of love. This opera is set in ancient Gaul, the region of Western Europe that’s now France. As the opera begins, the Roman has occupied Gaul by force, and the local Druids (nature worshipping resident of Gaul) are unhappy about it. Norma is the high priestess of the Druids. In that role she must serve as the human intermediary between the Druidic gods and the people. Her position also required to be a virgin. Unbeknownst to her people, she is not a virgin. She bore two sons. The father is the Roman proconsul. Unfortunately for Norma, she loves this Roman still, but the proconsul no longer loves her. He loves Norma’s best friend, Adalgisa. The section of the opera begins as the Druids are awaiting word from Norma before they rise up and kill the invading Romans. Horrified that her people will murder the man that she loves and the father of their children, Norma tried to buy time. Norma reveals her essential dilemma. She wants to perform her duty to her people while still protecting the father of her sons. The scene is a textbook two-tempo aria and the masterful applications of the ideals of bel canto opera. This resulting homophonic texture typifies the bel canto style. From the code Rossini, Bellini takes the formal plan of the scene. The principal advantage of the two-tempo aria is the opportunity for emotional contrast. Each tempo area (tempo primo, tempo di mezzo, and cabaleta) allows the singer to embrace a distinct affect. Another element of the code Rossini is a Banda. In addition to Bellini, two artists contributed in this scene; Felice Romani and Guiditta Pasta. Romani created the libretto for Norma. Pasta was the first Norma. Norma continues throughout the opera to hope that her lover will return to her. He doesn’t. She contemplates killing her children to hide her crimes against her people and against her oath to the Druid gods. She can’t do it. In the end, her crime was exposed. The Druids sentence her to die for her dishonesty and duplicity, The Proconsul is captured. As Norma is burned to death, the Proconsul realizes her virtue and throws himself onto the fire with her. 4. Italian Opera after Bellini: (pages 207-2012 chapter 11) In Italy Bellini died young and Rossini’s retirement the bel canto style might be extinguished. Initially Gaetano Donizetti manages to keep the bel canto style. The most frequent production today is his comic opera Don Pasquale and his tragic opera Lucia di Lammermoor. 5. FEDERIC CHOPIN (1810-1849) was born in Poland with a French Father. Chopin specialized in composing operas and composing for the piano. The piano is the only instrument or the central instrument in every piece. In 1820s was a difficult time for Poland. Poland formed a reluctant part of the Russian Empire. He moved to Vienna. Initially Vienna welcomed Chopin with open arms. Among the pieces he represented during his visits were works based on Polish national dances such as the Polonaise and mazurka. Soon Chopin arrived in Vienna; a war broke out between Poland and Russia. The Austrian Empire possessed many lands that were, like Poland, Slavic in language and ethnicity. Suddenly, a visiting polish pianist playing works with the distinctly Slavic character was no longer seen as an attractive novelty. Chopin moves to Paris, as the French were nominally allied with Poland. Once in Paris he composed his revolutionary Etude, reflecting his anger at the Russian occupation of his native land. Chopin music: His music reflects his controverted and singular temperament. George sand’s description of Chopin’s habits said that Chopin was a perfectionist whose works at the best with attention to the smallest detail. Give these tendencies, Chopin specialized in miniature forms. Most of his output is comprised of single-movement composition of relatively short duration. THE NOCTURNE: (CD3 #2) the nocturne genre has the goal the evocation of moods and feelings associated with the night. Chopin composed twenty-one nocturnes, making it one his most favorite genres. While sonatas open with sonata form, or fugue reveal by definition a particular form, the nocturne had no such history. Chopin and many romantics, wanted to illustrate their individual creativity in their work. The Romantics favored spontaneity creativity, seeing it as superior to the taste-bound calculation of their classical predecessors. Chopin’s methods aren’t so rigid as to permit the presentation of a single theme followed by variations. Chopin nocturnes are remembered by their key, in this case F# major, rather than by their number. The Nocturne in F# major exemplifies a structure on both the small and large scale that reflects Chopin’s concert with variation. The overall form of a piece is A-A1-B-CA2-coda. The reason to placing numbers after the returns of A is simple: each return is sufficiently different that some recognition of the difference is required in describing the form. (ver pag 210 parrafo 2 para mayor descripcion de esta parte). Through his compositions, Chopin has a gift for breathing life into the Romantic ideal in the expression of longings. His lovely piece was included in most unlikely film, Dracula’s Daughter (1936). 6. Hector Berlioz (1803-1869) (pages212-218) he is the last of the first generation of Romanticism. Born in rural France, he moved to Paris in order to study medicine but he study music career. The first attempt to enroll into France’s school music, the Paris conservatory was failed, his second effort did not. Once a student, he wins the school’s most prestigious prize, the Prix of Rome. A gala “concert envoi” entirely made up of the winner’s compositions would be performed by the finest musicians available. Berlioz entered the completion five times before finally winning. Berlioz holds the reputation as something of a maverick. No rule could stop him if he felt his way was better. His living wasn’t only for composer; he worked also as a musical journalist. Where he could campaign for his uncompromisingly romantic vision of what music should be. His compositional output is comparatively sparse. His works tend to be large, sometimes even mammoth in their scope. He felt that the modern symphony orchestra should be comprised of hundreds of musicians, thus increasing the expenses for concert promotes. Also increasing the orchestra instruments, but he would have added all manner of exotic instruments seldom mentioned by others composers, let alone actively used. Symphonie Fantastique: (CD3# 3) Berlioz believes that instrumental music benefited from telling a specific story. We call this sort of storytelling piece programmatic music and this Symphonie Fantastique is an example. The symphony is in five movements. Berlioz wrote a literary text to accompany and explain his symphony. The story is taken from the life of a young musician. Berlioz probably saw the young artist as an extension of himself. (ver el programa en paginas 213 y 214). In this fantastical story, Berlioz draws upon some basic Romantic preoccupations. The idea of a love so desperate that it consumes the artist reveals a complete lack of the sort of moderation that classicism valued. The fascination with mysterious forces of death captures the imagination of innumerable Romantic artists. Some aspect of the story are personal to Berlioz, for example feel that the composition of this symphony was influenced by Berlioz’ then unrequited love for the Irish Shakespearean actress. Harriet Smithson. Berlioz used of the idee fixe in every movement of the symphony helps lend some musical coherence to the symphony as a whole. Idee fixe definition: a fixed idea or obsession; a term Berlioz uses for a recurring theme, which carries programmatic meaning, in all of the movements of his Symphonie Fantastique. THE SECOND GENERATION OF ROMANTICS: (Pages 218-227) Were the composers who flourished in the 1840-1850. 1. FELIX MENDELSSOHN AND FRANZ LISZT: Mendelssohn and Liszt share a common generation and even for a time a common profession as orchestra conductors. They do not share a common sense of their relationship to the past. Mendelssohn is associated with revivalist tendencies, while Liszt’s name became associated with the phrase “Music of the future”. Mendelssohn: took part in the revival of Bach’s music in Berlin during the 1830s and 1840s, as an enthusiast of older music. Mendelssohn felt that concerts should have an educational function. He favored antiques genres like the oratorio. Liszt: was the most technically gifted pianist of his age. He concentrated on establishing the ethos of the great artist from the moment he walked onto the stage. Liszt’s abilities as a musician and entertainer took him to the far reaches of Europe. He performed from Turkey to Ireland, From Portugal to Russia. His piano compositions tend to be showy and technical. Some are programmatic, while others move in ethereal realms of pure emotion. 2.ROBERT SCHUMANN: the most influential composer of the mid-century, (1810- 1856) also an important journalist. He was a son of the bookseller, but his father died when he was young. Madness ran in his father’s side of the family. They had a mental illness running in the male family. Schumann’s mother wanted her son to study law, which he did for two years, but his thoughts ran toward the piano. Schumann expelled from the university and his Mom secured a most stern and disciplined teacher for her son, the famous Friedrich Wieck. At the time when Schumann began studying with Wieck, his teacher was advancing his daughter Clara’s career as a pianist. Clara became one of Europe’s most celebrated pianists. So Clara turned out to be the much finer pianist than Robert Schumann. This situation partly stems from Schumann receiving a crippling injury to his hand as a result of overpractincing while wearing a contraposition of his own design intended to strengthen his third and fourth fingers. Once Schumann’s career as pianist was over, he turned toward journalism and composition. As a journalist he co-founded the paper Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik, This paper still being published. Schumann took the form of dialogues between characters who served as advocates for different facets of Romanticism. As a composer, Schumann initially favored the piano. We have one of Schumann piano work, called FANTASIESTUCKE (Fantasy Pieces). This movement is called “Aufschwung” or “Soaring.”The key in this piece is also wonderfully ambiguous. The tension caused by ambiguity energizes much of Schumann’s best work. The form of the piece is ABACABA or rondo. However, elements of the A section are develop in the C section, making it seem as much like a development section as an independent thematic area. The first group of the ABA opens in the tonic key of f minor, and then moves to the polar key of D-flat Major. The C section is tonally unstable. When the A section return, tonic returns with it and remains in place until the end of the piece, just like the recapitulation of the sonata form. Some call this a sonata-form. In addition to the hybrid form, the piece has a hybrid tonic. The initial A section appears to be in A-flat Major. This hybrid tonic mirrors the hybrid form nicely. While the title of the piece, “soaring,” suggests a program, Schumann differed from Berlioz and Liszt concerning the value of specific program in instrumental music. His work more closely resembles Chopin’s in that regard. Like the nocturne, this piece’s title gives the listener a general idea regarding what the piece is about, but the details must come from the fantasies of each individual listener. ROBERT AND CLARA SCHUMANN: By the end of 1830s, Robert Schumann and Clara were in love. But Clara’s father did not give the permission for married. Schumann only can see Clara with the company of a chaperone. In the kingdom of Saxony at that time, a woman needed her father’s permission before she could marry. The mental illness that had taken Schumann father’s life had now seen his older brother die. For his part, Robert grants an honorary doctorate in music so that he might return to court “Herr Doktor Schumann.” During this anxious time of near total separation, Schumann composed. He wrote dozens of song in a very short time. One scholar argued in the pages of The Scientific American that Schumann was a manic-depressive. During his manic periods, he was hyper-productive and impossibly happy. During his depression periods, he could scarcely work at all. Waldesgesprach: In our anthology, we have a song dating from the manic period in Schumann’s creativity called “Waldesgesprach (Forest Conversation) CD3 #4 With Joseph Freiherr Eichendorff, one of Schumann’s favorite poets. In this case, a young man meets a beautiful woman while traveling through a forest. He decides to ad her, although his intentions may not be entirely honorable. She turn out to be a supernatural being, in this case the Lorelei, a terrible witch cursed for having taken her life over unrequited love, and now condemned to seduce men and to lead them to their ruin. Like many of the classical monsters of old movies –the wolfman, the vampire, and the hapless Frankenstein’s monster- The Lorelei is a reluctant villain. The song as a whole was not so much meant to impress adults with its details, but to warn young men to beware strange women. In an era without penicillin, a sexually transmitted disease mean almost death (like Schubert and Bellini).In this regard, the poem resembles a fairy tale with a clear moral: Don’t talk to strange women who are alone in the wood after dark. As you listen, note the cheerful piano introduction and postlude. It’s as if Schumann wants us to realize that he realizes that this story is not weighty tragedy to be taken too seriously. Not all macabre subjects in Romantic music were meant to be taken seriously. Just as Berlioz is having fun with the Wiches’ Sabbath in his Symphonie Fantastique, Schumann let us know, through his charming piano introduction and coda, that he’s aware of the fairy-tale quality of the poem. This opening and closing materials, adopts the calm innocence of childhood, for after all, fairy tales such as this are meant as warning to children. Some excellent text-tone relationships can be found in Schumann’s setting of this poem. When the young man speaks at the beginning, Schumann sets up a chain of dominant-to-tonic resolutions. We call such progressions, the circle of fifths. When the Lorelei sings, notice the descending chromatic scale in the piano. Another very nice touch is the evocation of recitative the young man finally recognizes the Lorelei. The piano plays chords, and the vocal line switches from lyrically melodic to declamatory and speech-like. In general when the female character speaks, the melody become higher in pitch and when the male character speaks the melody becomes lower in pitch. Only one singer performs this piece, so that one person must play both female and male parts. Schumann helps by relating high and low pitch level to the female and male characters. ROBERT AND CLARA’S MARRIAGE: before married, Clara had an important career as pianist, and had composed several pieces. After their marriage, Clara’s career faltered for a time. They had eight children. Clara not practices the piano while Robert was composed. This restriction had a terrible effect on Clara’s ability to continue her career. CLARA WIEK SCHUMANN’S MUSIC: The fugitive piece No1 represents Clara the composer CD2 #13. The formal plan of the piece is simple; ABA or ternary form. The great delight of the piece lies in how the suave material in all sections is almost wholly unpredictable. Short phrases, mostly two bars in duration, follow one upon the other. Her wonderful application in small-scale variation makes each phrase sound once familiar, yet totally unpredictable. The task is very difficult, as each phrase contains unexpected changes. The contrasting B section is faster and louder than the A section. Both the melody in the A section and the B section begin with rhythmically hesitant, ascending material. THE THIRD GENERATION ROMANTICS (pages 228-237) Robert Schumann like his older brother, he collapsed into incurable mental illness. Before this event, he had begun fostering the career of a young protege, Johannes Brahms. Like both Clara and Robert Schumann he was a pianist and composer. 1.Johannes Brahms: like Clara and Robert Schumann Brahms favored instrumental music without a definite subject. He engaged the older forms established in the previous century. As a result, much of his output as a composer falls into the instrumental genres of symphony, concerto, solo piano music, and instrumental chamber music. At a time when most composers were abandoning the past or distancing themselves from it, Brahms maintained the links between late Romanticism and its origins in the music of the Classis period. Brahms’ most interesting innovation was the constant of variation. His best piece demonstrate a beautiful coherence and the initial melody some sort of imaginative variation. Theorists of a later age would call his approach developing variation. Brahms marks the most conservative and classical extreme of the late Romanticism. Two new forces dominated; Music of the Future and Nationalism. A terrible quarrel broke out between advocates of Music of the Future and those who preferred to look back with nostalgia on better days gone by. 2.Music of the Future: the term “Music of the future” was coined by the second editor of Robert Schumann’s journal the Neue Zeitschrift Musik, Franz Brendel. Brendel specifically cited Berlioz’ program as the strong point in the conception of the symphony. Joining Berlioz in Brendel’s advocates of Music of the Future was in unusually configured programmatic pieces for orchestra, and Liszt specialized first in piano music and later programmatic orchestra music. Wagner devoted himself almost exclusively to opera. What the three shared in common was a commitment to the fusion of music with others arts, most usually literature. a. Richard Wagner: son of the police inspector in German city of Dresden. A writer person. He took up a career conducting opera for a small touring company. He composed his own operas. At first they were highly derivate of other composers; for example his youthful Liebesverbot (Forbidden Love) owes much to the style of Bellini. By the 1850s, he had established a more personal style as he consciously distances himself from the composition of opera. Eventually, he would no longer refer to creations as operas, but as “music drama.” The distinction was very important to Wagner. Opera comes from the plural of opus, meaning “work” in Latin. From the beginning, operas were a complex of smaller works that, when performed together, told a story. Wagner did not want his music dramas to be divisible into discreet sections. He wanted to craft works of such integrity and power that society itself would be reshaped by them. Far-flung as this ambition may seem to modern readers, the most amazing thing is that he nearly succeeded. Wagner’s Music Drama: The crucial features of Wagner’s music dramas that distinguish them from others sung spectacles run as follow: 1. Seamlessness, or endless melody, as Wagner called it, was the ideal of music unfolding almost without stops or pauses. 2. Leitmotifs were the principal means of connecting the music to the drama. Leitmotifs are musical motives that Wagner would associate with a person, place, or thing within the drama. 3. Wagner coined the term Gesamtkunstwerk (total artwork) as a way of expressing his ideal of fusing all the arts at their highest perfection, so that the whole of this fusion would be greater than the sum of its parts. 4. Wagner instituted a revolution in harmonic practice by utilizing what we now call linear chromatic harmony. That is the polyphonic lines that create harmony with pitches outside the tonic scale, often moving chromatically. 5. Wagner’s music drama tends to be gigantic in their conception. His works tend to be far longer than a typical bel canto opera. Moreover the orchestra he utilized is huge in comparison with the modest forces required for Bellini’s Norma. The Ring Of The Nibelung: Wagner’s most ambitious project comprised a series of four music drama called Das Ring des Nibelung (The Ring of the Nibelung- The Nibelungs are a race of dwarves). This massive composition has to be performed over the course of an entire week in order to give the singers’ time to rest between works. The story of the mammoth creation covers the twilight of the old German gods and the dawn of the world dominated by men. German mythology asserts that Wotan was a king of the gods and the god of binding agreements. In the ancient world, when there were no courts to appeal to for justice, keeping one’s word was important to the orderly conduct of society. By always keeping his word, Wotan finds that begin kind of the gods is of little value. He lacks freedom. Frustrated, he spends his time admiring mortal heroes and siring children with mortal mothers. Wotan’s fascination with mortals will ultimately be his undoing, for one day a hero will come who knows no fear. That hero, so a prophecy tells, will bring the end of the gods. Der Ring des Nibelung (The Ring, for short) tell the story of the idle gods, the coming hero, and the destruction of the old order. a. Background: we have the conclusion of the second of the four music drama comprising the Ring. b. Das Rhinegold: leer pag 231 parrafo 1,2,3 y 4. Es la historia de Lord of the Ring. Das Rhinegold powerfully reflects Wagner’s ideal of seamlessness. There are absolutely no breaks in the music for its entire two and one half-hour performance time. Wagner felt that his mythological plot required the absolute absorption of his audience. c. Reforms in the Presentations of Opera: At the Festspielhaus, the opera house created exclusively for the presentation of Wagner’s work. Wagner instituted many reforms in the presentation of opera. Previously in this book, opera allowed food, drinks, people could watch the opera, or watch one other, the most expensive seats were those not with the best view of the stage, but those that offered the rest of the audience the best view of the stage. His opera house had seats fixed to the floor and oriented toward the stage. The boxes with the poor view of the stage but excellent views of the audience don’t exist. Food and drink, even conversation, were all strictly forbidden. The lights were turned out on the audience during the performance. Today, these reforms are the norm world-wide at operatic performances. d. Die Walkure: leelo en la pag 232 e. Act two: leelo en la pag 232 f. Act Three: leelo en la pag 233 g. Wotan’s Farewell: (CD3 # 6) leelo en la pag 233. h. Leitmotifs: leelo en la pag 233 y 236. Wagner’s influence: leelo en la pag 236 y 237.
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