Diversity of Life I Notes Week 7
Diversity of Life I Notes Week 7 210
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jacob Erle on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 210 at Syracuse University taught by Dr. Justine Weber in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Diversity of Life I in Foreign Language at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Diversity of Life I Notes Week 7 101315 Ascomycota Cuplin Island Northern Irelandmike shearwater Mount Tarn Northern England Biodiversitv Studies drawn toward fungi that parasite insects current global concern over loss of habitatsspecies no allowance for fungi with insects Laboulbeniales only group of fungi that are found on insecthosts easily seen on integument of insect easy to spot stable taxonomy and thought to be monophyletic large systematic collections globally available Roman Thaxter studied parasitic moth fungi described 23 of world s fungi specimens for Ascomycetes 1300 parasitic fungi on species of Asian ladybugactually look like insect larvae Transmission Bioloav critical in understanding evolution and ecology of hostdisease interaction if direct expect patterns to differ between malesfemales during feedingrepro period at the time of physical contact between individuals Pathogenicity also critical in understanding relationship RLultS 13 of females sporting fungal thalli were virgins uninfected females preferred as mating partners by males no signif difference between weight loss in infected vs uninfected Concluded Hesper0myces virescens is an STD in winter H virescens is primarily a socially transmitted disease multiple species of fungi found on 1 insect and specialize on a single location on the insect could be multiple forms of the same species Phylogeny Specimens studied that are 45mi11ions years old in amber all 2000 species have the same type of spores being produced IMonophyletic started as terrestrial colonized aquatic lifestyle and then back onto land over evo history wondrous fungus found on debris surrounding beetles previously thought to be used by beetles to protect against parasites 101515 Introduction to Ascomycetes Ascomvcetes and Basidiomvcetes both share compartmentalized mycelium dikaryotic life stage in life cycle production of asexual conidia sometimes complex dispersal systems increasing evidence they diverged from a common ancestor primary morphological character distinguishing asco s gt ascus Mycelial ascomycetes compartmentalized mycelium septa with simple pores presence of Woronin bodies rounded granular body bounded by a double membrane possibly used to plug pores of hyphae in case of injury to prevent further damage Occurrence and Importance vast diversity includes yeasts filamentous ascomycetes asexual taxa and lichenforming taxa very broad ecological amplitude from the Arctic to the Amazon to insides of nuclear reactors many are microscopic are go undiscovered some fruit found under the ground Mycorrhizae mycoplastic endophytic live inside plants Important in Human Affairs plant pathogens apple scab powdery mildews chestnut blight Cryphonectria parasitica Dutch elm disease Ophiostoma Animal interactions ringworm Athlete s foot global disease Pneumocystis pneumonia in immunecompromised individuals HIV Industrial mycology Fermentation Medical mycology Antibiotics Chestnut Blight 1905 Bronx before the disease American chestnut was the dominant tree in eastern hardwood forest made up 1 tree out of every 4 in a stand BIG dbh 34ft and height 100150ft ranged from S Maine to Georgia and west to Ohio Kentucky More chestnuts were used for lumber than any other hardwood utility poles furniture railroad ties Disease could have been transported by woodpeckers as well as invasive insects Advantages straight grained easy to work with rapid growth rate decay resistant important source of food for people wildlife harvest and collect chestnuts to be stored or sold Introduction of Crvohonectaria major ec0102icaleconomic disaster probably introduced from Japan anywhere between 18761904 in 50 years it ravaged 36million hectares turned the mighty chestnut into a minor understory shrub current restoration project Transgenics see Dr Powell Somatic Structures either singlecelled mycelial filamentous or dimorphic can have either form see Pneumocytosis simple pores amp potentially coenocytic nuclei can move from 1 spot to the next via pores Woronin bodies membrane bound structures linked with septum function unknown Concentric bodies found in lichenized ascomycetes but function and origin remain unknown Asexual Reproduction ssionbudding grow out and separate Mother from Daughter seen in yeasts and dimorphic ascomycetes Fragmentation part of parent drops off and starts to propagate production of asexual propagules conidia andor chlamydospores vast quantities Soredia algal cells With hyphae wrapped around them found only in lichens Sexual Reproduction 2 compatible nuclei brought together in 1 cell by 2 morphologically similar gametangia making contact With fusion cell I ascus no longlived dikaryotic phase Morphologically differentiated gametangia antheridia and ascogonia trichogyne no fusion cell and dikaryotic stage may be persistent fusion of somatic hyphae somatogamy longlived dikaryotic phase nn Filamentous Ascomycetes incredible diversity typically develop functional sex organs Ascogonium ascogenous hyphae and crosiers enclosed in asocarp cleistothecium closed structure perithecium askshaped has exit spot Where ascospores are shot out apothecium open disc ascostroma develops inside organism plant cavity mycelial or ascospore stages generally overwinter Relationships presence of ascus and ascospores not fully resolved several traditionally recognized groups may be polyphyletic previous notions of primitive vs derived may have errors group as a Whole is monophyletic distinguished from by Archiascomycetes and Saccharomycetales on rDNA sequence Conidial states anamorphs The Good molds I Asexual stage of Ascomycetes soy sauce Apergillus Penicillin blue cheese The Bad Aspergillus avus I produces A otoxin very dangerous toxic carcinogen in other parts of the world contaminates peanuts a few parts Der billion mav be lethal The Ugly severe blemishes found mostly in tropics Pvrenomvcetes exit pore is typically at the top perithecial ascocarps occasionally cleisto Oviodcylindrical unitunicate asci usually in hymenium persistent asci With forcible spore discharge or evanescent asci single to several celled ascospores diverse and often complex anamorphs Importance parasites of arthropods endophytes mycotoxin producers mammalian parasites model lab organisms Plant pathogens Cryphonectria Nectria Ophiostoma Epochloe causes choke diseases of grasses apparently damaging parasitic fungus Also has mutualistic symbiosis virulent neurotoxin producer Discomycetes incredible diversity ascocarp apothecium traditionally divided into operculate open lid and inoperculate closed lid recent inclusion of lichenized forms many saprobic some mycorrhizal some even predatory on mainly invertebrates Apothecium hymenium layer of asci lining disk surface composed of clavatecylindrical asci usually with interspersed paraphyses hypothecium is thin layer of interwoven hyphae below hymenium excipulum is eshy part of ascocarp Ascus Types unitunicateoperculate only in apothecial ascocarps unitunicate inoperculate no operculum but special elastic ring mechanisms found in peritherical and some ascocarps prototunicate no active sporeshooting mechanism mainly in cleistothecial ascocarps or hypogeous possibly evolved from unitunicate bitunicate double wall diverged long ago very different from other Ascomycetes j ackinthebox inner wall blasts through outer wall Loculoascomvcetes asci form within locules cavity in a preformed stroma correlated character is bitunicate ascus includes many plant and animal pathogens and endophytes p0ssibly the most diverse group ofascomycetes few molecular studies to date Problematic taxa not thought to be closely related but all have poorly resolved phylogenetic status Erysiphales Laboulbeniales Spathulosporales traditionally placed in orders of cleistotheical or perithecial ascomycetes Deuteromvcetes diversity of life cycle patterns throughout Kingdom Fungi s0me species of all phyla reproduce asexually and sexually ability to produce several types of spores imparts huge exibility in dispersal and survival mixed bag of asexual taxa life cycles classified into different phyla dependent on stage discovered of 30000 known ascomycetes 5000 have been connected to anamorphs thousands still considered orphans anamorphic holomorphs genetic exibility through heterokaryosis parasexual cycle mutations can arise without sexual reproduction another possible mechanism for genetic recombination never actually seen in the field only the lab Relevance of Conidial Anamorphs some grow on us literally I most prevalent fungal disease of humans mycoses caused by conidial fungi ringworm jock itch athlete s foot maj or plant pathogens wood rot utility poles mycotoxins Aspergillis avus decomposition and recycling vital role in Carbon amp Nitrogen cycles stream ecology food chain intermediaries some stream inverts will only eat leaves than are fungalcoated biocontrol Beauveria powerful insecticide Arthrobotrys Human uses cyclosporine penicillin END OF NOTES
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