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Resurfacing our Earth

by: Jeanne Arnson-Serotta

Resurfacing our Earth MSC 101

Marketplace > MSC 101 > Resurfacing our Earth
Jeanne Arnson-Serotta
Survey of Oceanography
John Van Leer

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Survey of Oceanography
John Van Leer
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeanne Arnson-Serotta on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MSC 101 at a university taught by John Van Leer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.

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Date Created: 10/18/15
Resurfacing Plate tectonics 0 Seismic Waves come in two avors and penetrate through the earth 0 P waves primary waves arrive first like sound waves which propagate through a liquid gas or solids like compression pulses in a slinky Will strike your ear and vibrate your ear and in rock the speed of travel is much faster because its much denser material 0 Secondary waves arrive and are called S waves like the transverse motions in a taut rope These motions cannot propagate through liquid 0 When there is a seismic disruption you can see it from looking at the wavesplates anywhere in the world 0 The different layers of the earth s interior can be teased apart by looking at refraction patterns and shadow zones in P waves and S waves We can also detect nuclear explosions by the artificial earthquakes they produce 0 The earth is strati ed and we interact with the earth s crust The crust is very thick and mostly made out of granite Beneath the earth s crust is a boundary between the crust and the mantle discovered by Mohorovicic so the name of the discontinuity was shortened to the first part of his last name Moho 0 Seismic signals have shown a rigid crust separated from a rigid lithosphere 0 The outer continental crust is thicker granitic rock and the oceanic crust is thinner basaltic rock 0 The motion in the earth s liquid outer core is thought to create the earth s magnetic field According to Archimedes Principle the weight of an object is the same as the weight of the volume of displaced water 0 Water expands 8 when it freezes so it has roughly 92 the density of water so it will oat o Mountains are less dense than Mantle rocks so they oat as well Convective overturning of the Asthenosphere creates a divergent motion at the midocean ridges pulling the rigid mantle material outward and downward under the continents or island arc systems this slow subduction causes the melting of the crust under the edge of the continent causing the eruption of volcanos at the edge The earth is like a large magnet with lines of force spreading from pole to pole A few millennia ago someone in China oated a sliver of magnetized iron on a buoyant wood chip oating in a bowl of water so it could turn without friction 0 They discovered that it pointed toward the north magnetic pole and the magnetic compass was born 0 The magnetic field of the earth goes through reversals every million years or so So that solidifying basaltic lava WHICH contains iron will record the orientation of the earth s eld at the time it cools As the rift valley grows wider so does Iceland and the Atlantic Ocean 0 The MidAtlantic Ridge marks the boundary between two tectonic plates the North American plate to the west and the Eurasian plate to the east These plates are moving westward and eastward respectively The oceanic crust is generated in strips magnetized according to the magnetic field polarity and the time of solidification The oldest oceanic crust is only greater than 150 million years old so the ocean bottom resurfacing in constantly evolving By removing the strips one at a time we can play back the time and see how old they are 0 Rifting is a messy business as there may be competing spreading centers The Red Sea and Gulf of Aden are oceans in the making 0 IN the rift valleys of Africa there are numerous rift valley lakes like Lake Malawi which are often saturated with volcanic gasses like C02 which have poisoned local populations when they are suddenly released 0 The large Pacific Plate is carrying the Hawaiian Island chain North West over a hot spot creating a chain of islands The mid ocean ridge spreading center is a divergent boundary making the Atlantic grow wider at about the rate your fingernails grow 0 A moving oceanic plate can move over a hot spot in the asthenosphere below burning through the mantle to create new islands like the Hawaiian Island chain The great mass of these shield volcanos depresses the ocean crust locally 0 As the plates move The mountain gets older and smaller again


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