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Light and Sound in Water

by: Jeanne Arnson-Serotta

Light and Sound in Water MSC 101

Marketplace > MSC 101 > Light and Sound in Water
Jeanne Arnson-Serotta
Survey of Oceanography
John Van Leer

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Survey of Oceanography
John Van Leer
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jeanne Arnson-Serotta on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to MSC 101 at a university taught by John Van Leer in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views.

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Date Created: 10/18/15
9315 Light and Sound in the Ocean Light Complete electromagnetic Spectrum is shown with their corresponding frequencies or wavelengths Only a tiny part of the total spectrum is visible to human eyes 0 Gamma rays X rays Ultraviolet Infrared rays Microwave radar shortwave broadcast band long radio waves The Atmospheric Transmission of solar radiation is near 100 in the visible wavelength range On the infrared side of the visible range large absorption peaks due to water vapor and the other greenhouse gases can be seen Spectrum of light at various depths 0 At the surface there is full spectrum 0 By the time you39re at a meter depth all of the infrared will be absorbed 0 At 10m you only have blue and green mixed light left 0 At 100m there is only about 3 of light left and it is all in the blue spectrum Light attenuation is a strong function of its color wavelength The amount of heat in the outgoing light and all the infrared that comes out of the ocean is generated in the upper half millimeter of the ocean So the remotely sensed temperature does not even represent the mixed layer temperature 0 1 The first third of the incoming heat is absorbed in upper centimeter o 2 The second third is absorbed between 1cm and 1m depth 0 3 The final third is absorbed by depths greater than lm Sound Propagation 0 One of the earliest uses of underwater acoustics was depth sounding The average speed of sound is near 1500 ms so the greater the depth the greater the round trip time for the sound pulse 0 Oil and mineral exploration companies use low frequency sound sources like air guns to penetrate deep below the bottom so that features like this salt dome stand out Geophysical shops tow large streamers with hundreds of hydrophones to collect acoustic data 0 Sound waves are refracted by changes in sound speed Increases in temperature salinity and pressure all increase sound speed 0 Finding Russian submarines during the Cold War was an important activity 0 In midlatitudes sound speed is high near the surface because the temp and salinity are high sound speed also increases near the bottom because the pressure increases with depth I In the middle at about lOOOm there is a channel that travels sound great distances 0 Actual sound velocity profile exhibits a welldeveloped Sound Channel with minimum sound speeds at 1km depth 0 Sound waves are attenuated according to 1wavelength squared Short wave lengths travel very short distances and long wave lengths can travel great distances 0 Short wavelength high frequency sound waves die out quickly Sounds with a frequency of 1megahertz will be absorbed completely in a few meters 0 Long wavelength low frequency sounds like Whale songs can transmit a thousand miles or more


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