Machiavelli Notes Part 2
Machiavelli Notes Part 2 POSC 1030
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Quinn Riley on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POSC 1030 at Clemson University taught by Dr. Brandon Turner in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 94 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Political Theory in Political Science at Clemson University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
The Prince Machiavelli Part 2 There were certain congruencies between Modernity and the ancient world 0 The ancients and the moderns both emphasized the role of the faculty of reason Emphasized Mans ability to use logos or reason to interpret the world understand the world act in the world 0 Major difference the end to whichthe role in which that faculty was conceived at play 0 Ancient world purpose of logos contemplateunderstand objective truths about facts and values in the world questioning the nature of the good pursing the good 0 Modern world same emphasis on reason a different kind of reason Very little interest in human beings innate ability to question the good 0 Instrumental reason reason as a tool 0 We can use instrumental reason to nd out all kinds of things 0 Prisoners dilemma Two prisoners in jail will one rat on the other If they both cooperate 0 both deny knowing each other they will get a higher pay off of 5 If one of them defects rats on the other and the other cooperates one will get a higher pay off If they both defect they both go to jail and the pay off is 0 quotShould I cooperate or should I defectquot Well the pay off will be higher if I defect If we both cooperate I will get something but not as much as I could If you repeat the game over and over again you can gain more in the long run from cooperation Why do people cooperate Strategy for tit for tat the golden rule says quotDo unto others as you would have them do to youquot The bible In the classical world one ought to do good unto one another 0 We can use our nature to try to understand the good life and determine that we ought to treat each other well 0 The modern world not because you ought to but because it is the best LONG TERM strategy Cooperate with others until they defect punish them and they return to the standard of cooperation quotHonesty is the best policyquot In the business context they mean that you will do better and get more repeat business if you are honest Reason has been used lnstrumentally rather than actively same faculty but using it as an instrument 0 Both emphasize mans reasons but in drastically different ways Hobbes argues that we have nothing but instrumental reason we are machines looking to maximize utility functions Morality are rules and guides that we ve adopted through reason but they are rules to maximize us in the long term 0 Not murdering 0 Not stealing 0 Not cheating Instrumental reason is crucial in the great modern project the project of mastery Classical world uses reason to better understand our place in the moral world 0 Modern world uses reason to master to help the world give us what we want 0 What science iswhat science does STEM elds 0 Global skilled labor market very mathematically gifted people have created their own market another form of mercantilism 0 quotWe should like it that another group creates them because we can buy them from themquot 0 Doctors are a high status profession 0 Doctors help us exert mastery over the natural world It is ceaselessly trying to kill us how do we combat this 0 Nature makes us age 0 Technae part 0 Medicine helps us get what we want engineering science etc o Speculative physicist philosophy and physics 0 Our emphasis on STEM elds is a result of the shift n understanding rationality as an instrument 0 Masters of the universe modern tendencies How does this relate to Machiavelli o A teacher of evil 0 Lived during the high ltalian renaissance contemporary of most of the great painters architects Not Italian wrote in Italian rather than Latin following Dante o Wrote in Florence there was no ltalian national state Broken into city states 0 Actually a politician he was a trusted and central advisor to Florentine rulers Highly valued for ambassador skills traveled often advised princes on 0 how to deal with other powers 0 Imprisoned by the by Medici family and was exiled and went on to reside in the Italian country side where he begin to pursue philosophy 0 First a politician though tried forever to get back into politics 0 Our first real realist was in fact a politician 0 He comes to political theory with an incredibly detailed knowledge of how the political sphere works and how the political world is a separate world Fundamentally different than other sorts of worlds The world of politics morality does not apply god does not apply 0 The Prince was written during his exile The Prince Dedicated to Lorenzo Medici He offers this work as evidence of his loyalty to the Medici s and as evidence of his skill Special knowledge about how politics works 0 Formatted Mirror for Princes genre 0 0 COO 0000 0 End of medieval period Princes someone who rules a principality states in which one person rules not a republic Basically near absolute monarchs quotRule with the law rather than under the lawquot Attempt to bring princes to heal Western European countries ruled by very young people Mirror for Princes genre was a moral guidebook for these young people that had a lot of power Teenage boys A short treatise on morality Different variations of prince liberal just etc So that they could see themselves the way other people see them Everyone around the prince is there to compliment the prince quotThe prince cant be wrongquot Some mode of moral instruction for unrestrained authority Machiavelli inverts this not going to teach you how to be good going to teach you how to be badin good ways how politics workyou are surrounded by bad advice Teach how to operate in the quotquicksand of politicsquot This new sense that emphasizes mastery teaching the prince how to master the political sphere The replacing of an ancient form of knowledge with a new form of politics the good the just and a shift to political expertise mastery Administrators provide structure they oversee they manage they answer logistical questions Plato didn t travel didn t value poems his method was dialogue come and reason together exchange reason to acquire truth he was more poetic Aristotle WAS MORE SCIENTIFIC He went around analyzing constitutions Machiavelli has a new method his evidence is was more historical examples The discourse of Liby Roman historian running commentary on 10 volumes of Liby He looks to past historical examples of great leaders emulative treatment of great leaders 0 One of the primary ways of instructing young people historically was via biography to teach through instruction and by example 0 Today biographies are not scienti c enough Machiavelli likes biographies so we can learn and follow the example they set forth 0 Machiavelli is more like Aristotle comparatively than Plato o The master theme of The Prince is mastery Figures Cesare Borgia dynastic family with a lot of power Regarded by most people at the time not just Florentines as a villain unnecessarily cruel Machiavelli says that Borgia gives an example we can follow 0 Page 24 the process by which Borgia has come into power in a new region that he did not inherit the region of Romania Machiavelli is a symbol of power distinguishes between nobles who exploit their people and nobles who govern there people 0 Difference between good rule and bad rule ruling is good but ruling just to be cruel is not good and will usually lead to downfall quotSubdues the Romaniaquot He acquires this territory via the battle eld it is beset by crime theft murder etc 0 He decided it was necessary to make it peaceful and obedient with good government Ramiro d Orco puts a man both cruel and efficient in power gets absolute power and acquired immense authority very quickly established peace and unity through fear 0 How do you solve the problems of crime You punish them publicly with no element of conscience to talk you out of it Borgia the duke decides that such unjust power is no longer necessary because people might come to hate it o Establishes civil court 0 To win the people over he wanted to make clear that he was not responsible for any cruelty 0 Local towns send representatives to court as he tries d Orco Courts are orderlypeaceful 0 They convict d Orco cut him in half and laid out for viewing with a bloody knife next to him 0 Lived by the knife died by the knife Borgia leaves it behind him also so as to say he is not to be messed with o Borgia sends a message to the people you are all important I am a prince of the people l have identi ed the course of your ills and I cut him in half o Sends a message to the weak nobles that are still around d Orco was my friend so I gave him power he wronged me none of you are above the law do not mess with me The situation in Romania was not a good one there was a lot of repine in very short order Borgia turned them around 0 He did so brutally but effectively 0 Machiavelli does not want to discuss an imaginary world he wants to discuss real life 0 Contrast to Plato s city in speech 0 Aristotle was also interested in constructing an ideal city 0 How people actually behave vs he people ought to behave is such a great difference o If you want to be good GO to church o If however you want to exercise some degree of political mastery then there are whole different sets of techniques that have nothing to do with faith justice logos etc o It has to do with wielding power effectively learning not to be good at the right times Borgia was an expert at this D Orco went into town for two weeks and killed a lot of people Borgia provided stability why was he so hated 0 Order in the world is an extremely tenuous thing in order to preserve order you need to quotbreak a few eggsquot 0 quotFar more good than harm overallquot 0 There is sometimes a necessity for violence Satan represents the form of human behavior in Christianity Machiavelli says that morality does not apply in the political sphere Machiavelli s humanism human existence 0 People are screwed up o If you want to use political power to good ends to decrease violence to increase prosperity by increasing individual security you are going to have to use force political power 0 For the purpose of securing order 0 There is the maintenance of ones own power Frank Underwood a Machiavellian character not what Machiavelli is talking about Agathocles has fame but not glory not honorable despite being well known 0 Borgia was both 0 Ultimately it isn t a nihilistic game of power it is always rooted in a necessary human need to establish order 0 Politics even though its bad it is necessary Order is a rst order good to Machiavelli What s good in politics is order it is necessary for prosperity safe and wealthy then you must have order
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