Notes the week of 10/12-10/16
Notes the week of 10/12-10/16 SOCI 1101
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Paige Notetaker on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Cooney in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see Intro to Sociology in Sociology at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Sociology 1012 Organization Introduction we humans like to form or join groups the group dimension of life is what we call organization organization capacity for collective actions organization is a continuum or scale crowds groups corporations states the pull of the group people tend to be strongly attracted to groups most basic group is a crowd a collection of people with common focus amp low degree of organization eg spectators at a football game crowds are weird you can see the game better on tv people still go to the stadium you can hear the music better on your headphones yet people still flock to the live concert why crowds crowds are exciting energizing emotionally charged crowds are particularly exciting packed together moving as one generating a single sound focusing on a single thing sporting events groups more organized groups are even more attractive coege young people prepared to payload money and undergo various hardships to join fraternities and sororities we like to belong people are attracted to groups in many areas of life business Rotary Kiwanis eisure moose lodges country clubs knitting circles reading groups etc sports teams vs individual sports more interesting groups are not just more attractive more interesting too compare the interest in individual sports eg tennis skateboarding vs team sports eg soccer football etc however when individual sports have team events more interest eg US vs Europe in golf Ryder Cup increasing the pull factors that increase the pull or attractiveness of the groups size high status eg universities success winning teams the solidarity of the group itself gangs terrorist groups terrorists why do people risk their lives to join groups like Al Qaeda amp ISIS one theory argues that it is not for political reasons but for the sense of belonging this would explain why terrorism is often a first resort despite nonviolent opinions terrorists often fight even after achieving their goals eg Hezbollah in South Lebanon being part of a group of comrades facing common dangers is intoxicating and addictive surely there is something in this theory group influence groups are not just attractive they have another power they influence us we tend to do what the group does people tend to follow group consensus eg disagreeing with 11 jurors is very different if the group is right and we follow it that s fine but what if the group is wrong in its judgements the famous experiments of Soloman Ash Ash Experiment people are asked to judge the length of lines the other participants are part of the experiment confederate confederates give the wrong answer resuts subjects agreed with group on 37 of incorrect responses 30 of people always agreed with the confederate group but 25 never agreed with the groups incorrect judgement Why do they conform because they believe in other people or because they want to fit in when people can give their judgements in private they conform much less this suggests that people conform mainly to fit in Asch experiment 2 most people overestimate the conformity of others and underestimate their own size does not matter groups of 316 members produce equal amounts of conformity factors affecting conformity 1 How unanimous the group is 1 other dissenter reduces conformity to 5 2 How high the status of group members is compared to individual eg if they are all upperclass 3 How knowledgeable the group is compared to the individual eg consists of experts 4 How relationally close the group is to the participant 5 How collective the society is eg China Japan vs France US Summary in short groups exert a strong attractive pull on individuals and promote conformity conformity varies with the social composition and context of the group itself Sociology 1014 Our world unlike the world of our ancestors the most powerful actors today are not people but organizations organizations include business corporations nonprofit corporations eg Amnesty International educational entities eg universities partnerships eg group of doctors gangs drug cartels A new being orgs are a 2nd type of social being Coleman Eg UGA is a social actor separate fro the people who work or study here we will pass on and through UGA will go on orgs are different no physical body hence they are much less limited by time or space they can live forever and have parallel presence can be in more than 1 place at a time 3 types of relationship 2 types of social being means 3 types of social relationships of interaction Coleman Type 1 Individual Individual eg you and your friend Type 2 Organization Individual eg you and UGA Type 3 Organization organization eg UGA and NCAA Type 1 vs type 2 because organizations usually act through individuals type 1 and type 2 often look the same eg our dining hall server is our friend interacting as friends and type 2 interacting with the business more and more interaction is type 2 Type 2 the organization has much more power especially when large it defines the terms of the contract knows more about you than you know about it has greater resources resisting org power but individuals have some power we can take our business elsewhere more frequent shame orgs through bad publicity but not effective if they have a monopoly disrupt or steal from the org Coleman fight fire with fire forming orgs can be effective eg consumer orgs labor unions political orgs social change in part because they have so much power orgs today often considered bureaucratic and the enemies of change Gladwell has a different take social change requires orgs yet most people today overlook orgs amp emphasize the role of networks eg Arab Spring black lives matter networks clear boundaries members vs nonmembers can be very hierarchal and rulebound more reliant on physical and temporal copresence of people networks vs organizations gadwell networks are good for low risk activities eg helping get a stolen cell phone back not for dangerous ones eg civil rights real social change requires organization Civil rights movement was based on strong ties and hierarchial organization eg Montgomery bus boycott highly organized lasted a year occupy wall street by contrast OWS was based on networks what did it achieve Gladwell social networking can spread the message of revolt but no real change comes from revolt without organization will Black Lives Matter reduce police killing of AfricanAmericans Summary orgs are a new type of social being can be domineering reducing human freedom yet no real change may be possible without organization Sociology 1016 Two population explosions of people on earth ballooned in the 20th century 16 billion to 6 billion but a second less wellknown population explosion also occurred the of organizations no exact data but we organizations became vastly more numerous Bigger orgs have also grown larger the largest are States and business corporations the largest state is the United States United States US employs about 28 million civilians pus approx 15 million in the US military US budget spending 35 trillion US budget income 3 trillion US national debt 163 trillion business corporations argest business corporations are huge too of the world s largest economic entities Q are business corporation have great influence especially in poorer countries very mixed opinions about corporations largest business corporation Walmart highest revenue annual sales of 470 billion empoys 22 million people worldwide 2014 aftertax profit 16 billion revenues exceed those of over 170 countries including Sweden Saudi Arabia and Indonesia pop 230 million Virtues of corporations amazingly efficient sell food and products from all over the world at low prices bring oil from underneath deserts and oceans to our cars amp homes our standard of living would be impossible without corporations critiques only have obligations to share holders Jefferson Lincoln and others warned that corporations were becoming too powerful today they are a lot more powerful eg exert enormous influence on politics Max Weber argued their influence spreads beyond politics Max Weber 18641920 famous German sociologist wrote The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism argus modern life is increasingly rationalized eg bureaucracy rationalization corporations are colonizing the very idea of being human huntergatherers had great freedom our lives are full of schedules tasks rules Weber these are part of rationalization the drive to rationally control and order life corporations main source of rationalization The iron cage of rationality the lose of freedom rationalization breaking tasks down into smaller parts and doing them as quickly and efficiently as possible eg factories other examples exercise entertainment education the Holocaust Ritzer updates and expands Weber s idea McDonaldization McDonaldization Ritzer modern life is increasingly efficient predictable calculable controlled irrational ls the iron cage tightening more rules regulations procedures more surveillance eg CCTV corporations Corporate surveillance of employees of consumers google stores every search for 18 months monitors gmail to create targeted ads every move you make on the internet is recorded the apps you put on your phone transmit data even when you turn off your location questions is this the price we pay for greater prosperity amp security or is it eroding our freedom people disagree reflecting our ambivalence about corporations in general