Bio 106 10/14 and 10/16
Bio 106 10/14 and 10/16 Biology 106- Organismal Biology
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by JustAnotherStudent on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 106- Organismal Biology at Washington State University taught by Dr. Cousins & Dr. Carloye in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 76 views. For similar materials see Biology 106 in Biology at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Bio 106 part 2 October 14 2015 AnnouncementsHints Syllabus correction Homework 1120 moved to 1130 the Monday after thanksgiving break Exams Detailed oriented You must know the stepbystep details to do well Clicker q s give you an idea of her question style Lab material is included study guide will help you gure out what to study Study guide provided Consider carefully how to best take notes 0 Writing out cycles and processes is helpful 0 Capture what she says as well as what is on the screen 0 Try to leave each lecture knowing at least 3 new things during lecture What is an Animal De ned as organisms who have this package of traits Eukaryote Multicellular Lack cell walls Heterotrophic 0 Must consume other organisms for energy and nutrients Overview of Animal Digestive Systems 0 Complete digestive system 0 Tube with separate openings mouth and anus 0 Food digested extracellular in cavity Not digested in the cells but in a compartment Incomplete digestive system 0 Gastrovascular cavity Baglike wsingle opening food inwaste out same hole 0 Digestive enzymes secreted into lumen of bag 0 Food digested extracellularly in cavity 0 No digestive system very rare seen in sponges o Occurs intracellularly inside cell cytoplasm Intracellular Digestion Porifera sponge is only animal group that relies on intracellular digestion Tiny particles are engulfed by individual cells Enzymes insde the cell break down food Digestion Step 1 lngeonn Digestion begins in oral cavity 1 Mechanical digestion via chewing a Breaks particles into smaller and smaller pieces 2 Chemical digestion via salivary enzymes a Amylase digests starch sugar storage form in plants and glycogen sugar storage form in animals Mix of chewed up food saliva quotBolusquot Digestion Step 2 Swallowing Bolus moved from mouth through esophagus into stomach Digestion Step 3 Digestion in the stomach Function storage and digest proteins Gastric juice HCI hydrochloric acid and pepsin enzyme 0 HCL PH 2 very acidic Breaks cells of meatplant tissue apart helps with digestion Denatures proteins breaks bonds and increases surface area of proteins 0 Pepsin Inactive form pepsinogen cannot break down proteins HCL converts inactive form to active form pepsin in stomach lumen HCL works on pepsinogen by clipping of a little piece which then converts to pepsin Protease protein breakdown enzyme Breaks proteins down to smaller polypeptides smaller chemical bits Stomach lining protected by mucus creates buffer between the acid enzymes and stomach lining Cells replaced every 3 days Dynamics in stomach Stomach can stretch up to 2 liters Food mixed w digestive juices by churning of stomach Is a closed container sphincters are tight 0 Between esophagus and stomach 0 Bottom of stomach blocks small intestines Acid re ux heart burn back ow of chime into esophagus Stomach releases squirts of chime into small intestines October 16th 2010 Announcements 0 Final paper due in lab next week 0 Next week39s lab will be available this afternoon 0 In her folder Digestion in Small Intestine First part duodenum Digestive juices form 0 Accessory glandsorgans Pancreas Made there and then secreted o Bicarbonate deacidifies chime o Enzymes trypsin amp chemotrypsin breakdown polypeptides protein fragments Works on polypeptides to break them down into individual amino acids 0 Lipases break down lipids fats o Other enzymes breakdown cards nucleotides 0 Close to beginning of small intestine Liver Makes Bile D stored in the gallbladder o Breaks down fats emulsi es fats Aids in lipid absorption 0 Greenyellow color because created from dead red blood cells gives the greenyellow color Gallbladder Under lobe of liver Step 4 Absorption in small intestine Jejunum o Chyme next enters jejunum region 0 Function Absorption of nutrients into bloodstream 0 Lots of surface area Arranged in such a way that the surface area increase dramatically Size of tennis court if spread out Intestine wall lots of folds Folds have folds villi Individual cells have folds microvilli 0 Also called the brush boarder Step 5 Large Intestine At junction between small intestine and colon of large intestine o Cecum the part where the small and large intestine join Ferments plant material microbiome that has the ability ferment plant based materials cellulose Large in herbivores to get the most out of their plant based diet Appendix part of cecum Function is unclear may have immune function or may be vestigial Role of Colon o Absorb water back into body from intestine o Recovers about 90 of the water that goes through the digestive tract Can vary absorbs less diarrhea absorbs more constipation Regions of the large intestine o Cecum Ascending Colon Transverse colon Descending colon Sigmoid colon Rectum Storage of feces o Undigested material 13 of dry weight bacteria 0 Anus OOOOO Feeding Adaptations Length of intestine correlated to diet 0 Shorter carnivores No cell walls in meat easier to break down 0 Longer herbivores In general plant eaters herbivores amp omnivores lonoer intestines 0 Cell walls hard to digest found in plants 0 Cecum is large in herbivores Serves as a fermentation center 0 Mutualistic microorganisms we both bene t Animals can39t digest cellulose some bacteria can and if you have those bacteria in your microbiome they ll work on it Bacteria and protists can Termites cant digest cellulose the protists break down the cellulose in the wood Housed in fermentation chambers in animal intestine Ex cecum crop large intestine Teeth o Herbivores Molars at wboard rigged surface Grinding surface mechanical breakdown food source lncisors front teeth for snipping vegetation o Carnivores Large sharp incisors and canines front pointy ones 0 Kill prey and tear esh Jagged molars Crush and shred esh think a cats molars o Omnivores Not great at either one but can do both Teeth for all actions Molars ridged but at lncisors multi purpose Canines sharp but not as sharp or large Regulation of Appetite Hormones 0 Multiple hormones respond to digestion quotSatiety Centerquot in brain center master controller 0 Before meal Appetite stimulated by Ghrelin secreted from stomach 0 After meal Hormones of suppression Small intestine releases PYY o Antagonist opposite of Ghrelin Adipose fat tissue secretes Leptin 0 Also makes you feel full Pancreas secretes insulin 0 Stretch receptors 0 Located in the stomach Overdue it and the stomach sends signals to the brain to get this excess food out 0 Fun fact extremely dif cult to burst a stomach almost impossible to do 0 Too much AlkaSeltzer or baking soda too quickly is the number one way people die from over lling their stomach
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