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POLI 1090 - 006
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kelly Dodge on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC-1001-2 at University of Denver taught by Aimee Reichmann-Decker in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Psychological Science in Psychlogy at University of Denver.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Class Notes September 16 2015 Research What is Psychology 0 Psychology is the scienti c study of mind and behavior Psychologists study how humans think act and feel 0 Example Temper tantrum as kid D road rage as adults Psychology and the Scienti c Method 0 Empirical observations of the world D can measure with senses Observations that are systematic de ne what you are studying and repeatable Considerations in Research 0 Last time Research considerations overcon dence Do you believe there is something unusual about the Bermuda Triangle Most of the class answered yes Goes back to 19405 The Navy were ying jets across the Bermuda Triangle couldn39t tell what was the slq or ocean and radio connection was immediately cut off No plans were found 0 quot39 persons vanished north of the Triangle on a ight to Jamaica on February 2 1953 An SOS which ended abruptly without explanation was sent from the British York Transport just before it disappeared No trace was ever found 0 Flight from Portugal to Jamaica Went down on the way from Portugal to Newfoundland Not even in the Bermuda Triangle Limits of Intuition and Common Sense Deceit Many people are willing to use the fact that humans naturally nd meaning in events against us 0 Example Psychics greenwashing How many times have you had a premonition that didn39t come true 0 Illusory correlations Remember occurrences that t out hypotheses and forget those that don39t You typically have dreams that feel real and then they happen you are likely to remember those Joe and his gray athletic socks Top Hat question Examples Old German men are bad drivers knock on wood toasting and taking a sip spilling salt and throwing over shoulder Friday 13 walking under a ladder breaking a mirror class examples PowerPoint examples People die in threes Friday the 13th is unlucky don39t swim for 30 minutes after eatingor your will get a cramp and die Hypothesis Testing 0 Goal identify a rule being used to generate a series of numbers 0 To test your hypothesis to her rule present a number and the rule that you believe I m using 0 Con rmation Bias Tendency to search for evidence that con rms what we already believe and ignore con icting evidence 0 Foresight and the Hindsight Foresight judgment over time o Foresight examples Jennifer Anniston and leaf harder and longer to recognize something 0 Hindsight Bias Tendency to exaggerate one39s ability to have foreseen how something would turn out after learning the outcome 0 quotI knew it all alongquot 0 Flip 1 Heads or tails 0 Flip 3 We know that each of these outcomes are equally as likely 0 Random Occurrences o Gambler s Fallacy Given random data we look for patterns Feeling an event is 39due to hit39 0 Unusual events are expected to happen a certain percentage of the time Examples Unlikely series of random events sports fans Critical Stance is needed 0 Don t Assume 0 Search for evidence 0 Critically examine evidence Inherent Biases often distort judgements 0 Limited intuition and common sense Need the Scienti c Method 0 Limitations of Intuition and Common Sense 0 Intuition relied unquestioningly on personal judgement 0 Common sense may lead to incorrect conclusions The Scienti c Method Observation People born around the same time are alike Hypothesis People born under the same astrological sign have similar personality characteristics Theory The alignment of the stars at the time of birth affects personality Observation Hypothesis Theory The cycle of building knowledge 0 Ruling out alternative hypotheses Cohort effect Group effect Testing Hypotheses Research Methodology 0 Setting Field vs Laboratory 0 Goal of research determines design 1 Description Survey results Affected by 0 Wording of questions 0 Clarity or complexity of questions Do you not believe that the Holocaust could not have happened 2 Correlation Measure the extent 2 factors vary together 0 Correlation coef cient 0 Positive or negative indicates direction of relationship 0 000 to 100 indicated strength of relationship 0 The correlation coef cient can range from 1 to 1 0 Correlation does NOT show causality 0 Possible hypotheses for a correlation Directionality A causes B o B causes A Third Variable AampB caused byC Correlation example we nd a positive correlation between parents39 use of physical punishment and child misbehavior 0 Does increased physical punishment cause increase misbehavior Directionality Does increased child misbehavior cause parents to use more physical punishment Directionality 0 Could something else account for both physical punishment and child misbehavior ThirdVariable Yes socioeconomic status SES 0 Correlation Example The US army conducted a study of motorcycle accidents attempting to correlate their number with other variables such as SES or age 0 The best predictor was the number of tattoos the rider had what is this a proxy for Reckless etc 3 Experimentation Directly access causeeffect relationships Manipulate one thing variable to see its effect on another variable Manipulate Independent variable IV 0 See effect on Dependent variable DV 0 Population a complete collection of people 0 Random Sample is a procedure that lets chance assign people to the experimental or the control group 0 Random sampling A technique for choosing participants that ensures that every member of a population has an equal chance of being included in the sample When we randomly sample participants from a population the sample is said to be representative of the population 0 What do the ndings mean 0 Measure for statistical signi cance eg p lt 05 less than or equal to 05 o If the statistical test p lt05 95 change that alcohol causes driving errors in simulator 0 If p gt 05 the differences between groups re ects chance 0 Run the experiments 100 times with the same parameters amp pvalue of 05 detects a true different that exists in the population Can falsely detects a difference in the population 0 Basic emotion Can people39s disgust reaction be altered o Hypothesis Repeated to exposure to disgusting scenarios decreases the disgust response 0 MechanismTheory Perhaps via desensitization less arousal 0 Need to use random assignment to eliminate third variable problem 0 Signi cance indicates results re ect a true difference with high probability gt95 if P lt 05 Nonsigni cance Results re ect change or another variable in play
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