Lecture Notes - Week 7
Lecture Notes - Week 7 COMM370010
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Eric Jackson on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to COMM370010 at University of Delaware taught by Angelini,James R. in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Theories of Mass Communication Week 7 Propaganda Sidebar Communication activity that intends to control attitudes and actions of others by playing on their pre eXisting biases with messages designed largely to appeal to their emotions and or irrationality Done by manipulating forms of communication songs visual etc o More often advantageous to person sending the message not the audience Elitist phenomenon 0 Those with some semblance of power financial social etc have the kind of access means to the media to be able to transmit these propaganda messages Grows out of mass society theory comes out of people s desire for societal structure Uses symbols and the media wide variety of forms Key concept is control communicator attempts to somehow control the mass audience Characterized by 0 Concealed purpose if true purpose of message was known by the audience the intended message would lose its potency o Concealed identity it s not always apart what person or group sponsored or sent out the message I Knowing identity of the sender can create bias based on your current attitudes and beliefs 0 Control of information persuaders don t want the opposite message on the audience only exposed to their point of view 0 Management of public opinion is the ultimate goal 0 Manipulate behavior want audience members to act in certain ways purchase certain items etc Nazi Propaganda Ellul One of the more successful propaganda movements Vilifying certain groups Jewish people Americans to make their regime seem better Types of Propaganda Political propaganda o Utilized by the government and pressure groups organizations with some kind of vested interest in the political process Aim to change the behavior of the public to re ect the goals of gov t o Distinguished from advertising which has economic goals 0 Strategic long term and subtle Sociological propaganda o More common type of propaganda 0 Aims to integrate and unify to a group ideal everyone has the same beliefs and attitudes Propagation and adoption of an ideology O Theories of Mass Communication Week 7 0 Goal is conformity everyone strives towards the same goal part of the group consciousness I Ultimate goal is homogeneity Propaganda Basics Propaganda of Agitation 0 People take an active role in changing society 0 Work toward changing societal norms Propaganda of Integration 0 People to come together as one and have same set of beliefs Message centered not audience centered Importance of message characteristics 0 Lee and Lee seven propaganda devices I Name Calling o idea of giving something a bad label makes us condemn reject an idea Without evidence 0 Ex terrorist versus freedom fighter 0 Advertisers do this by calling out their competitors to assert that they are better I Glittering Generality 0 Ex comfort super etc 9 virtue words 0 We associate these words with things being better because they have a connotation of superiority 0 With children these are fun names given to products I Transfer 0 When message of something respected or revered is carried over to apply to some other item 0 ie it translates from one item to another 0 Ex putting product in front of the American ag to promote feelings of patriotism I Testimonial o Consist of having some respected or hated person saying some product is good or bad 0 You want someone Who is well known or respected to positively promote your product 0 Or you could have someone Who is not well respected to promote a competitor s product 0 Ex celebrity endorsements I Plain Folks 0 Speaker attempts to convince audience that ideas are good Wholesome 0 Public thinks that the person in the ad is like them so that they will feel an association connection Theories of Mass Communication Week 7 I Card Stacking 0 Selection and use of facts or lies to give best possible case for product idea person etc o Ignore things that don t support you 0 Ex Pepsi Challenge they only showed the people who picked Pepsi between Coke and Pepsi I Band Wagon o Idea that you re trying to get people to use your product because everyone is doing it 0 You re an outsider if you don t use the product Active Audience Audience has to be selective in choosing certain media over others They develop their own preferences Members of an active audience are socially linked sometimes your friends choices in uence your choices Goal oriented there are certain gratifications that audiences want as a result of their experience with the media They are actively making choices Media Effects Study of Media Effects is important because of media s presence in society and sheer number of people exposed to its messages world wide Looks at effects on people and groups Same messages can be very far reaching Presumption of Media Effects Basically why are these effects just assumed to be there Reasons 0 Media consume so much time and money it s a huge part of our everyday lives and people will pay lots of money for this content 0 Anecdotal evidence ex kids watch cartoons with violence then they start to act aggressively at some level I Have not yet scientifically tested these hypotheses necessarily though 0 Self interest of media companies I Advertisers and program networks want their content to have some kind of in uence I Most likely a financial interest 0 Self interest of politicians I Also use media to persuade and manipulate I Want to impact voting patterns 0 Self interest of academic scholars I There would be nothing to study for some people otherwise Theories of Mass Communication Week 7 What are Some Media Effects Intentional effects intended by creator 0 Advertising on product purchase want to persuade audience to buy something so convincing them to buy it successful 0 Political campaigns on voting want to steer public opinion on issues or candidates 0 Effects of PSAs on behavior I Ex stop smoking avoid drugs etc 0 Effects of propaganda on ideology I Those behind the propaganda campaigns try to persuade people without their knowledge or benefit to the audience I Still it is the intended effect of the creator Unintentional effects unforeseen by creator 0 Effects of media violence on aggressive behavior hopefully I Discussed mostly in teens and children I Violent actions in these are not always openly present in the media content 0 Impact of media images on social construction of reality I Too much media can cause people to overthink statistics ie think the world is more dangerous than it actually is 0 Effects of media bias on stereotypes I People then believe and perpetuate these stereotypes I Tend to negatively skew their views perceptions of these peoples 0 Effects of sexual content on objectionable attitudes and behaviors I Consequences of unplanned pregnancy and STDs are not usually depicted in the media stories 0 Effects of cognitive activity overall I Automaticity audience members can watch TV without giving much thought to or critically evaluating the content Historical Views of Media Effects l920s 40s Bullet Hypodermic Needle Theory 0 Predicts strong and universal effects on nearly everyone in media s audience 0 If you re exposed to same media content it will affect everyone in the same way because it is a shared experience 0 Media has greater effect on individuals though 0 Famous example The War of the Worlds I Most people listening did not know it was a dramatization of the book reading I People had a heightened level of anxiety panic I Magic bullet theory allowed these to spread quickly but not as much as people thought 0 Doesn t take into account individual interpretations Theories of Mass Communication Week 7 I Everyone can interpret books movies music etc in a different way I This is what caused researchers to move away from this theory Limited Effects Model l940s 60s 0 Mass communication typically has small effects on audience members low impact Only affects a few members of the audience basically the opposite of magic bullet theory Hovland s Army Studies impact of a series of films Why We Fight I About soldiers feelings on training and feelings on joining army I Original intent was for people to want to join the army I They were successful in exchanging the information but unsuccessful in persuading people to join I Thus the effect was limited did not affect everyone Cooper and J ahoda Mr Biggott cartoons I These contained some anti prejudiced messages I When people who were prejudiced read these they agreed with Mr Biggott and identified with him 0 This reinforced their prejudices I People who agreed with the anti prejudice messages saw Mr Biggott as a villain and reinforced their connection to the anti prejudiced messages Erie County voting study election info received directly by opinion leaders not followers I Two step ow can t exist without limited effects model Mediating factors play a role in what the effects are I People choose what to expose themselves to and this can change how they perceive the message I Group norms impact people s overall perception of a message Powerful Effects Model l970s 90s O 0 Mass media impacts a lot of people not necessarily everyone but in significant and powerful ways Mendelsohn s research follows idea of media impacting a lot of people I CBS National Drivers Test strived to overcome public overconfidence in their ability to operate vehicles correctly 0 Distributed via magazines stores gas stations etc o Unsatisfactory score would tell people that they probably needed to enroll in a driver s improvement program 0 35000 people out of 30 million viewers actually enrolled Theories of Mass Communication Week 7 I A Snort History 0 Short film which showed how alcohol could potentially affect your driving abilities using animation 0 Showed in movie theaters before movie aired o 3 in 10 people who saw it said they were going to change some of their previously held behaviors about drinking and driving 0 Again not all of the population or even a majority but a significant percentage I Informational soap opera 0 Rise in social instability in Los Angeles Mexican community gang crime and vandalism o Telenovela was created to get message out to community about how they would help 0 Characters experienced many of the same problems as members of the community but they found ways to help the situation in the telenovela o 6 of viewers did join community groups like the ones shown in the soap opera 0 The Great American Values Test I Survey about values that Americans hold most dear I This program would air on ABC NBC and CBS at the same time on the same night I 60 of viewers watched this because they basically had to since there were only these three channels I Telephone surveys went out immediately after 0 Program was blocked in certain areas of Washington and the survey about values was sent out to them as the control group 0 Responses corresponded mirrored what the program said if people watched the program however people in the blocked areas had very different responses 0 Media usage impacts civic engagement I Decline was seen less people voting going to civil rallies joining public team I People viewing television seemed to be less socially engaged 0 Important to note that this does not occur universally or easily I One quick exposure does not mean desired effect takes place Current Views on Media Effects No one overarching theory or model today but there are commonalities Audiences are active we are selective about what we choose to watch expose ourselves to based on our goals Niche communication appears to be something that appeals to everyone some effects of media will be very unique to some individuals Theories of Mass Communication Week 7 Stronger effects viewers are getting more saturated amounts of exposure to themes like violence and sex rather than when there were only a few channels New media internet effects still being studied