BIO 123 Chapter 7 Notes (Part 1/2)
BIO 123 Chapter 7 Notes (Part 1/2) BIOL 123
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amber Logan on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 123 at University of New Mexico taught by Dr. Dorothy C. Scholl in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Biology for Health Related Sciences and Non-Majors in Biology at University of New Mexico.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Chapter 7 Notes Cellular Respiration Introduction 0 Metabolism series of chemical reactions that maintain life within an organism o Catabolism breaks down large molecules exergonic Cellular respiration takes place in oxygendependent catabolic pathways that extract energy from glucose to make ATP 0 Anabolism builds large molecules from smaller ones endergonic Photosynthesis anabolic pathway that reduces C02 to be transformed into glucose Metabolism anabolic reaction catabolic reaction 0 O M 0 o 0 o 0 energy C0 Oo smaller mOJecules larger molecule 0 O M 0 0 o O O O O energy 0 O 0 larger moleCUIe smaller mote0ules 2013 Encyclopaedia Britannica Inc Image 1 0 ATP fuels a variety of cellular activities delivers energy to anabolic pathways and is regenerated by catabolic pathways Energy in ATP is stored in covalent bonds between phosphate groups 9 energy is released when ATP cleaves off a phosphate and becomes ADP o Basal metabolic rate BMR minimum amount of energy that a person needs to maintain life Decreases w age studies have shown that a having a calorierestricted diet promotes longevity 0 Chemical reactions reactants 9 products 0 Enzymes are needed to help facilitate reactions Catalyze reactions by lowering the activation energy Substrates bind to active site 0 Induced fit model enzyme can slightly change shape to fit the substrate Can be denatured by high heat ie fever high acidity and high alkalinity Are tightly regulated by biofeedback within the cell Often found embedded in the membranes of organelles and matrix in the mitochondria Orderly arrangement of enzymes in membrane facilitates the sequential chemical reactions of a metabolic pathway 0 Mitochondria the powerhouse of the cell 0 Formed by endosymbiosis 0 Center of cellular respiration generate the majority of the body s ATP 0 Central to apoptosis programmed cell death 71 Redox Reactions The Transfer and Transformation of Energy 0 Cellular respiration cell breaks down organic molecules and transfers the potential energy to ATP molecules 0 Activation energy EA input of energy required to break the bonds of the reactants and thus start a chemical reaction Electrons are involved in the making and breaking of bonds 0 Oxidation and Reduction reactions Oxidation reaction occurs when electrons are lostmove further from nucleus Reduction reaction occurs when electrons are gainedmove closer to nucleus Always occur together 9 redox reaction the collective process of gaining and losing electrons ln glucose molecules see Image 2 C6H1206 EA breaks covalent bonds between elements 9 electrons in valence shells becomes unpaired 02 reacts w unpaired electrons 9 forms C02 and H20 0 Forms polar covalent bonds electrons move closer to oxygen atom nucleus reduction and further from hydrogen and carbon atom nuclei oxidation Electromagnetic radiation photon released during reduction of oxygen atom to balance the potential energy loss Loss of hydrogen atoms I oxidation 1 CbH12Ob gt l 6 l Energy Glucose l 1 ATP Gain of hydrogen atoms Ueduc on Image 2 72 The Importance of Cellular Respiration for Multicellular Life 0 Evolution of the eukaryotic cell mitochondria and cellular respiration 1 38 bya first prokaryotic cell emerges from hydrothermal vents in ocean 2 Early prokaryotic cell evolves photosynthesis 9 increase in atmospheric O2 3 25 bya early bacterium evolves aerobic respiration 4 2125 bya aerobic bacterium begins living inside of another prokaryote as an endosymbiont 5 endosymbiont evolves into modern mitochondria and becomes center of cellular respiration in cells 0 Mitochondria center of cell s metabolism 0 Metabolism catabolic reactions break down molecules anabolic reactions build molecules 0 Cellular respiration is much more efficient than photosynthesis at extracting and transferring energy 0 Allows organisms to 1 Be mobile gather food escape predation etc 2 Generate heat maintain body temperature 3 Maintain largermore complex brains Reactive oxygen species ROS free radicals toxic forms of oxygen 0 Formed during cellular respiration when unpaired oxygen atoms form covalent bonds w any nearby molecule oxidizing that molecule When this happens 0 Protein loses its ability to facilitate reactions 0 Cellular membranes lose their ability to regulate what enters and exits cell 0 DNA can be damaged 0 Theory nuclear envelope evolved to protect DNA from free radicals o Antioxidants evolved by cells to counteractneutralize free radicals 73 A Brief Overview of Cellular Respiration 0 Cellular respiration is an exergonic reaction reactants contain more potential energy than the products 0 Some of energy is transferred to ATP but most of it will be released as heat 0 Example starting a fire exergonic reaction that releases energy as glucose is oxidized into C02 and H20 releasing majority of energy as heat 0 Cellular respiration is a metabolic pathway that has 4 stages see Image 3 1 Glycolysis Takes place in cytoplasm Requires an input of energy Results in splitting of glucose into 2 pyruvate molecules 2 ATP molecules 2 Pyruvate oxidationpyruvate decarboxylation Takes place in the mitochondria Pyruvate is oxidized 9 produces C02 molecule and acetyl molecule Acetyl molecule bonds to Coenzyme A 9 forms CoA 3 Citric acid cycle TCAKrebs cycle Takes place in the matrix of mitochondria Remaining carbons are oxidized into C02 9 forms 2 ATP molecules 4 Oxidative phosphorylation Electron carriers NADH and FADH2 shuttle electrons to electron transport chain ETC 9 produces majority of ATP Substratelevel Substratelevel Oxidalivo phosphorylation phosphorylatlon phosphorylation Image 3 Part 2 of these notes will be posted once Dr Scholl finishes her lectures Picture Credits Image 1 httpswwwbritannicacomscienceanabolism magesvideos Image 2 httpswwwstudybluecomnotesnotenchapter6textbooknotesdeck4049999 Image 3 httpcienciasdejoselegblogspotcom201305larespiracioncelularaerobicahtml
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