Lecture Six History 1063
Popular in Early US History
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This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kristen Ward on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1063 at Mississippi State University taught by Andrew Lang in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 148 views. For similar materials see Early US History in History at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
m Securing the Republic 17891815 Questions Facing the US in 1789 a 4 questions about the US i Would the new national government be strong enough to handle the domestic problems left over by the war without becoming too powerful ii Would the US be able to defend its independence iii What is the relationship between the people and the government iv Would political parties emerge under the new Constitution And could the US handle the arguing among the parties Launching the New Government AFirst President quotExecutive Legitimacyquot a George Washington hero of the Revolution cool calm and collected larger than most people the only unifying person between the two parties b VP John Adams c Secretary of State Thomas Jefferson d Secretary of the Treasury Alexander Hamilton B First Congress 1 judiciary Act 1789 a Passes tariffs to raise internal revenues 2 Executive Organization quotThe Cabinetquot a The Cabinet created executive structure b Washington lled these positions with the most highly quali ed that he could have Hamiltonian Federalism 17891792 A Alexander Hamilton as Secretary of the Treasury a Hamilton thought he was the smartest man alive 1 Purpose National Power a He believed if the republic was to succeed the national government had to be strong b Hamilton wanted power that he created c He did not have faith that humanity could govern itself He believed that mass chaos would break out without a strong af uent government 2 Philosophy Public Good and Elitism a Hamilton was a strong elitist b He believed the only good people in society were those who were quotwellborn or born into af uent families c He despised the average person B Report on the Public Credit 1790 150 pages arguing that the nation needs the ability to C 1 D E 1 Borrow money and be able to pay back the interest from foreign governments 2 Funding and Assumption the money to pay off the interest comes from taxes and tariffs to manage the national debt 3 Create a stable currency a stable market for commerce and the people s support of the system 4 Assume the state s debts and pay them off a James Madison was fearful of Hamilton s ideas for such a strong national government b The condition for this report being passed is that the Capital was moved to Philadelphia Report on the National Bank 1790 a This report was on the proposal of a national bank b It was to help maintain the public credit c Hamilton wanted the bank to be located in Philadelphia to support the Northeast s ideas and commerce d There was immediate opposition for this idea because of the idea of power distribution and Constitutional interpretation Constitutional Interpretation a Hamilton s proposal was thought to possibly be illegal b There were two types of interpretation of the Constitution i Strict took the Constitution word for word distrusted the Necessary and Proper Clause ex Jefferson ii Broad took the Constitution on a more loose read between the lines standing Believed in implied powers supported the Necessary and Proper Clause ex Hamilton c With President Washington s help the Bank was chartered in 1790 Report on the Manufacture 1791 a Hamilton wanted America to become a more industrialized nation with a market economy b Bene ts of this report include i Becoming a productive nation which promotes immigration ii Creating a domestic market to compete on the world market with other countries iii The government s support would create unity amount the various sections of the nation c Congress did not Pass this Report Result of Hamilton39s Programs IV 1 Financial Stability a Hamilton s programs created a more reliable economy and the blueprint for the economy of the country we live in today 2 National Power a The National Bank now had powers to regulate interest rates contain the national accounts and encourage commerce 3 Federalist Party a With the passing of Hamilton s Reports the Federalist Party was created lled with rich quotwellborn men like Hamilton Jeffersonian Republicanism 17891972 A Mr Madison39s Party a Madison was Hamilton s political opposition b Madison unlike Hamilton distrusted a strong centralized government c Madison believed in republicanism which is when the common people govern instead ofjust the wellborn elite B Thomas Jefferson a Jefferson also opposed Hamilton s ideas 1 Political Philosophy 2 3 a Jefferson believed that man was born inherently good and learned evil b quotIf man is free there is no limit to what he can doquot Thomas Jefferson c Jefferson believed that the common man could govern themselves without an elite class of governing gures d Jefferson believed that the government must resist power so that the common man can be free to make his own decisions e Jefferson himself was very wealthy and powerful but he did not think himself better than others because of it Agrarianism a Jefferson believed that life in cities would lead to division into bourgeoisie and proletariats b He believed that everyone should live out in the rural America c He said that if god had chosen people it would be people who worked the land d He hated Hamilton s plans for manufacturing Strict Constitution a Jefferson viewed the Constitution in a strict wordfor word way to do b He said the National Bank was unconstitutional C Republican Party a The Federalists and the republicans fought tooth and nail against each other b Washington said the party system would end badly He believed that men would become more loyal to the party than the country D Election of 1792 a The idea of an election made many Americans uncomfortable b Washington initially was not going to run again but then decided to for the good of the country Foreign Policy and Party Politics 17931796 A Jefferson and Hamilton Differ Over Foreign Policy a Jefferson was partial to France while Hamilton was partial to England B Problems of the French Revolution 1 Neutrality a The French Revolution split Americans about what b Some Americans led by Hamilton believe the French Revolution was what happened when the people governed themselves c Washington declared neutrality for America and said anyone who aided France of England would be prosecuted 2 Citizen Genet a 1793 the new French government sent Edmond Charles Genet as a diplomat aka Citizen Genet b He was met with a hero welcome when he arrived in America c Citizen Genet commissioned Americans on his way to the capital into attempting to capture French ships on the seas d Washington was infuriated by this and scolded Genet when he arrived at the Capital e Genet denounced America s neutrality and their foreign policy f Jefferson was embarrassed that France did this C British Violations of US Neutrality a England took merchandise off of American ships and violated American neutrality b England refused to remove their forts from American Territory VI c Federalists wanted to form a treaty with England to keep a war from happening so they sentJohn Jay the head Supreme Court JusUce D Jay39s Treaty 17941795 a England agreed to remove their forts from American soil because it was too expensive for England to keep funding forts to unimportant areas b America agreed to become an international partner with England during the English French War c When Jay returned to America the Republicans were infuriated because they believed that the Federalists were pushing their own ideas E Whiskey Rebellion 1794 a Congress taxed whiskey highly b Whiskey distillers chose to ignore this tax c Washington raised a 12000 men militia and led them to Pennsylvania to make the distillers pay the taxes d 20 men were arrested and 2 were sentenced to death but were pardoned by Washington FWashington39s Farewell Address 1796 a Washington was done with the presidency b Washington warned America i They needed to end political parties ii They should ignore England s politics only engage in economics c Washington s words ran true until 1929 when the US joins NATO before World War 2 G Election of 1796 a The Federalists and the Republicans fought hard against each other b Federalist John Adams defeated Republican Thomas Jefferson c Adam s presidency was ultimately a failure The Adam39s Administration 17971801 a Jefferson was VP A Federalist Party Dissension a Dissension of the Federalist Party was led by Hamilton B XYZ affair 1797 a Peaceful relations between France were broken by this b Adams sent 3 diplomats to France to create a treaty after the shipping rights of America was violated c The diplomats waited for months until three men who only went by X Y and Z came in demanded 10 million dollars start negotiations Adams was offended highly C Undeclared Naval War with France 1798 a America and France began to seize each other s ships at sea b The Federalists used this undeclared war to smear the RepubHcans c Jefferson badmouthed Adams D Alien and Sedition Acts a With these acts no one could speak ill of the President Congress or the Federalists b These acts applied to the vice president and required two years in prison and a ne if violated E Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions 1798 1 Compact Theory of the Constitution a Jefferson and Madison began to work to gure out who determined the Constitution b They went to Virginia and Kentucky and wrote recommendations to them c This created the Compact Theory of the Constitution and it said that since the states make up the union the can deem something unconstitutional d Virginia and Kentucky declared the Alien and Sedition Acts unconstitutional F Election of 1800 a Thomas Jefferson a Republican won the election 1 Issues a Jefferson did not change the issues of America b This election was not a revolution but a reorientation c Jefferson believed that we are all everything we are all Americans 2 Results and Signi cance a It decentralized some of the power that had grown in the federal government VII The Republicans in Power 18011805 A Jefferson39s First Term 18011805 1 The quotRevolution of 1800quot a Jefferson did not change the idea of America It was not a revolution but a reorientation b Jefferson believed that everyone is all parties that everyone is simply just American 2 Struggle with the Federal Judiciary a The Republicans wanted to take some power away from the judiciary because it was primarily Federalist b Justices began making speeches from the bench in favor of the Federalists c In the 4 months between Jefferson s election and his inauguration Adams packed the court system with Federalists These were the quotMidnight Appointmentsquot 3 Marbury v Madison 1803 a Marbury s appointment overlapped Adam and Jefferson s presidencies b Jefferson s secretary Madison denied Marbury his appointment So Marbury sued Madison c The case went to the Supreme Court d ChiefJusticeJohn Marshall said 1 Marbury deserved his appointment 2 The Supreme Court does not have the authority to make him do that it would make the court too powerful 3 Part of the Judiciary Act was Unconstitutional e Marshall created the idea ofJudicial Review This means that now the Supreme Court determines if a law is unconstitutional 4 Louisiana Purchase 1803 a This was possibly the greatest thing that came out of the Jefferson Administration b Napoleon sold Louisiana to America because he did not have the resources to defend this territory while he was ghting a war in Europe c A treaty sold the territory for 15 million dollars d Where in the Constitution says that the president can purchase land This question arose with the purchase of Louisiana 5 Lewis and Clark Expedition a Jefferson sent Lewis and Clark to send back information on what is out in the Louisiana Purchase b They each kept detailed journals that can still be read today c The West was no longer unknown d Waves of new settlers ooded the new lands B Election of 1804 a Jefferson was easily reelected b Though the election was won easily Jefferson s second term ended in disaster C Alternatives to War 18051809 1 Problems with Britain and France a Neither England nor France respected America s neutrality in their war 2 lmpressment a Britain would capture sailors off American ships to make them join the British Navy Chesapeake Affair 1807 a An American captain refused to have his sailors impressed This started America s push for war 3 Embargo Act 1807 a This prohibited American ships to go to Europe D Election of 1808 a The Republicans did not relinquish power because Madison was reelected E Drifting to War 18091812 1 Continuing Economic Coercion a England and America broke off diplomatic relations 2 quotWar Hawksquot a A new party emerged that pushed for a war with England 3 Causes of the War of 1812 a There were concerns of American honor and impressment F The War of 1812 a The war lasted 3 years b America was unprepared for a war 1 Military Failures a The White House was burned b Many battles were lost 2 Federalists Opposition to the War a The Federalists were the rst quotantiwar party b They believed it was childish to alienate England Hartford Connecticut a Meeting of Federalists b While here the Federalists stated that if the war continued their states would secede 3 Treaty of Ghent 1814 a England and America met in Ghent Belgium to form a treaty to end the War of 1812 b They agreed to the status quo antebellum to go back to how things were before the war No land was seceded c With the signing of this treaty the Federalists looked foolish Francis Scott Key wrote the StarSpangled Banner during this war refused d January 1815 Battle of New Orleans though after the treaty was signed Andrew Jackson got together a bunch of rag tag men and destroyed a British Company killing 700 men and only losing 20 men e Jackson was a war hero 4 Death of the Federalist Party a After 1815 the party no longer existed b Their opposition to the war crumpled the party c 1816 The Republicans became the only party in America and continued this trend for the next ten years What happened to Alexander Hamilton a Hamilton made a public comment about Jefferson s Vice President Aaron Burr b He demanded a public apology Which Hamilton c Burr challenged Hamilton to a duel d Hamilton shot into the air and Burr shot him in the side and Hamilton died at age 40 VIII Summary Securing the Republic 17891815 1 Would the New National government gain enough power but not become oppressive Whiskey Rebellion Alien and Sedition Acts Virginia and Kentucky Resolution Compact Theory of the Constitution Election of 1800 Marbury v Madison 2 Would the US be able to maintain its global status Yes War of 1812 3 What is the relationship between the people and the government The United States became more egalitarian 4 Would political parties destroy the United States No Election of 1812
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