SW1000 Ch. 9 Notes
SW1000 Ch. 9 Notes SW1000
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This 11 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kennedy Sherman on Wednesday January 7, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SW1000 at Ohio University taught by Michael Ashton in Fall2014. Since its upload, it has received 164 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Social Work and Social Welfare in Nursing and Health Sciences at Ohio University.
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Date Created: 01/07/15
111714 Social Work Notes Chapter 9 Crime Juvenile Delinquency and Correctional Services Nature and Extent of Crime pg 284288 Crime is an act committed or omitted in violation of a law Law is a formal social rule that is enforced by a political authority Lavvs re ect our laws and our values Lavvs change as the norms of society change The Uniform Crime Report UCR is the most comprehensive statistical summary of crime in the US It is published by the FBI It reports violent and property crimes The US has the highest crime rate of any industrialized nation Who is arrested The demographics of criminals Young males males2females 41 Racial minorities Poor Urban lf Whitecollar crimes were included in the UCR the demographics of those arrested would be Older Wealthier White Suburban Crime Statistics Most crimes go unsolved Poor people commit highrisk lowyield crime Wealthier people commit lowrisk highyield crimes embezzlement Statistics are manipulated by the police and public of cials 33 of actual offenses are reported Est 50 of violent crimes are not reported 111714 Crime Causation Theories pg 289295 All of these theories were important at one point in time Early Theories Demonology Crimes and criminals were thought to be caused by evil spirits Those who engaged in deviant behavior were possessed by the devil The only way to cure the behavior was to remove the spirit through prayer rituals and torture Classical and Neoclassical Theory A person makes a decision about whether to engage in criminal activity based on the anticipated balance of pleasure and pain MarxistLeninist Theory Assumes that all crime results from exploitation of workers and from intense competition among people Exploitation of the lower class The basis of the communist revolution Believe that crime will disappear when society achieves a classless status Physical and Mental Trait Theories Phrenology Maintained that criminal behavior was related to the size and shape of the human skull Lombrosian Theory Criminals are born Criminals inherit certain abnormalities or stigmata The more stigmata they have the more they were likely to be predisposed to a criminal career Mental De ciency Theory Criminal behavior results from feeblemindedness lmpaired their capacity to acquire morality and selfcontrol or to appreciate the meaning of laws Morphological Theory There is a fundamental relationship between psychological makeup and physical structure 111714 Muscular individuals Were more likely to become criminals Did not assert that this lilltelihood was inherited Psychological Theories Psychoanalytic Theory Sigmund Freud Delinquent behavior results When the restraining forces in the superego and the ego are too Weak to curb the instinctual antisocial pressures from the ID Psychopath a person who is thought to have no moral constraints against engaging in criminal activity Deviant behavior Was viewed as stemming from unconscious con icts xations and repressed traumatic experiences Current behavior Was largely controlled by early childhood experiences Psychodynamic ProblemSolving Theory Views deviant behavior as contrived by the personality as a Way of dealing With some adjustment problem Con icts among the personality FrustrationAggression Theory Frustration produces an agressive responce SelfTalk Theory The reasons for any criminal act can be determined by examining What the offender was thinking before and after the time the crime Was committed ls an approach for identifying the underlying motives for committing a crime Sociological Theories Differential Association Theory Criminal behavior is the result of a learning process that primarily occurs in small intimate groups A person becomes delinquent because of the excess of de nitions favorable to violation of the law over de nitions unfavorable to violations of the law Past and present learning experiences in intimate personal groups thus de nes Whether a person should violate lavvs Anomie Theory Criminal behavior results When an individual is prevented from achieving high status goals in a society 111714 Unable to achieve goals through society s legitimately de ned channels they then seek to achieve them through illegal means Higher crime rates occur among groups that are discriminated against Deviant Subcultures Theory Some groups develop their own attitudes values and perspectives which support criminal activity Societal Control Theory Assumes that all of us would naturally commit crimes and therefore must be constrained and controlled by society from breaking the law Three factors for preventing crime 1 A strong conscience and a sense of personal morality 2 A strong attachment to small social groups family etc is thought to prevent individuals from breaking the law because they fear rejection and disapproval 3 Fear of being arrested and incarcerated Labeling Theory Asserts that criminals 6am to break the law Similar to differential association theorists Labeling a person as a delinquent or a criminal encourages rather than discourages criminal behavior Critical Theory The capitalist economic system is the root cause of our crime problem Capitalism fosters crime by encouraging and requiring the eXploitation of one group by another and by promoting the sel sh quest for personal gain as if it were the inevitable goal for all human behavior Types of Crimes pg 295306 Organized Crime Largescale operations Welldesigned plans developed by a large organization seeking to maximize its overall pro ts Relies on public demand for illegal services Activities lnclude Gabbling Drug traf cking Loan sharllting ln ltrating Legitimate Businesses Labor Racketeering Prostitution Extortion White Collar Crimes The most frequent crimes Committed by respectable middle class and upper class citizens Work related offenses committed by people of high status The public is often tolerant of White collar crimes Activities lnclude Embezzlement 1 of White collar crimes Stealing Income tax evasion Expense account fraud frequently over loollted Misuse of Government funds Bribing Public Officials False advertising Stock manipulation Violation of food and drug laws Littering Price xing agreements Corporate Crimes lllegal labor practices lnsider trading in nancial institutions Environmental crimes lllegal credit card manipulation Defrauding of pension plans Ealsifying company records Fraud lntimidation of competitors and employees Computer Crimes Crimes lnclude Hacking 111714 111714 ldentityTheft Pornography Hate Crimes Violent acts aimed at individuals or groups of a particular race ethnicity religion sexual orientation or gender PublicOrder Crimes Constitute the largest category of criminals Crimes include Traf c Violations Pornography Gambling Prostitution Vagrancy Drunkenness Curfew Violations Loitering Forti cation SeX Offenses Rape Prostitution Soliciting Forti cation Sodomy lncest Human Traf cking The recruitment transportation or receipt of people for the purpose of slavery forced labor or serVitude Traf cking takes away the basic human rights of the Victim Women are at a higher risk Homicide and Assault 111714 Criminal Homicide The unlawful killing of one person by another Criminal Assault The unlawful application of physical force on another person Most homicides are um m ena39ea39 outcomes of physical assaults Most murders occur between relatives friends and acquaintances Crimes of Passion Theft lllegally taking another persons property without their consent Crimes include Piclltpocllteting Burglary Financial schemes Forgery Counterfeiting Extortion Blackmailing Shoplifting Types of thieves Professional Well planned sophisticated and nonviolent techniques Steal as a regular business De ne themselves as thieves They are cunning and skilled and are rarely arrested Semiprofessional thieves Opportunistic and impulsive Crimes include armed robbery burglaries and holdups Don t involve much detailed planning Spend substantial portions of their lives in prison and are able to adjust well Repeat offenders De ne themselves as products and victims of a corrupt and unjust society Amateur thieves lndividuals who steal infrequently Generally de ne themselves as law abiding citizens 111714 Crimes are crude and unsophisticated Crimes are Unplanned 9 Juvenile Delinquency pg 304o06 Youth Crimes 20 of all people arrested are under the age of 18 Status Offenses Acts that are de ned as illegal if committed by juveniles but not if committed by adults Crimes include Being truant Having sexual relations Running away from home Violating curfew Became unruly offenses Gault Case 1967 A child ran away and the police held him for 4 days without informing his parents Juvenile Gangs Four types of youth gangs 1 Criminal Gangs eXist to commit crimes Their primary goal is material gain through criminal activities Crimes include theft extortion fencing and drug traf cking 2 Conflict Gangs turf gangs Respect is highly valued and defended 3 Retreatist Gangs focus on getting high lndividuals join this type of gang in order to secure continued access to drugs for their own consumption 4 Cult Occult Gangs engage in evil or devil worshiping Cult is the systematic worshiping of evil or the devil Occult implies keeping something a secret or hidden or a belief in the supernatural or mysterious powers The majority of occult members are adults Misconceptions Gangs are believed to he composed largely of homogenous adolescents Created due to unmet needs of families neighborhoods or traditional community 111714 The Criminal Justice System pg 306313 Consists of Criminals Courts Correctional system Courts are criticized for the actionsharshness of the police Harshness of sentences rasism The Tvvo Goals of the Criminal Justice System 1 Crime control The need to control crime and protect society from lavvbreakers Emphasizes speedy arrest and punishment for those who break the law 2 Due Process The need to protect and preserve the rights and liberties of individuals The Police The gatekeepers for the criminal justice system Can t arrest everyone because the jails would be overloaded and society would collapse Only 1020 of the calls that police receive are classi ed as criminal Lack resources and almost always encounter hostility The Courts Adversary system 90 of convictions in the US are obtained through plea bargains between the prosecuting attorney and the defendant Four key positions in a court 1 Prosecuting attorney 2 Defense attorney 3 Judge 4 Jury Being locked up vvhile vvaiting for the court date contradicts the idea innocent until proven guilty Bail discriminates against the poor 111714 Judges base their sentences on such factors such as the seriousness of the crime the motives for the crime the background of the offender and their attitudes toward the offender The rst juvenile court was established in lllinois in 1899 Juvenile judges focus more on punishing than on treating juvenile offenders Correctional System Only rarely do the punitive and treatment components complete each other The Punitive Approach Approaches used to punish offenders Physical Torture Social Humiliation Reducing the social status of an offender is another method of punishment Financial Penalties Fines Exile Death Penalty lmprisonment Objectives of lncarceration To reform offenders so they will no longer commit crimes To incapacitate criminals so they cannot commit crimes for a period of time thereby protecting society Achieve retribution for the victim and to some extent for the state To serve as a warning to the general public a deterrent effect A problem With these objections is that some of the components con ict With the others Association With other offenders may result in inmates learning additional lavvbreallting techniques lncarceration may label the offender as a lavvbreallter Segregating criminals may force them into a career of criminal activity lnstitutionalization The idea that some prisoners may come to lillteprefer prison life compared to the outside society The Treatment Approach 111714 The punitive approach has the continuous effect of decreasing the ef ciency and effectiveness of treatment programs Counseling Oneonone and group counseling Prison Education Has two objectives 1 To give inmates formal academic training comparable to schools 2 To resocialize inmates attitudes and behaviors Vocational Training Prison Labor Good Time Reduced sentence for good behavior Parole and Probation How to Reduce Crime and Delinquency pg 313319 The three general areas 1 Increasing or decreasing sentences 2 Reforming the correctional system 3 Preventing crime in the rst place lncreasing or decreasing sentences lnstitute swift and certain punishment Faster criminal court proceedings lmposing harsher sentences Separate repeat offenders from society More violence More Time Getting tougher on WhiteCollar Crime Getting uniform sentences Discriminating PublicOrder offenses lmposing stricter gun control
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