Notes 1 - Renaissance Outside of Italy
Notes 1 - Renaissance Outside of Italy ARCH 143
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Allison Lock on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ARCH 143 at Drexel University taught by Paula Spilner in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 38 views. For similar materials see Architecture and Society III in Architecture at Drexel University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
We will discuss the movement from the Renaissance from Italy outwards I The Renaissance in Spain Spain had been part of the Roman Empire therefore it features much Roman architecture Spain was also one of the rst locations to adopt Christianity until it was taken over by the Muslim empire for nearly 700 years During this time Islam was the religion of Spain however Muslims Christians and Jews existed peacefully for the majority of this time because they were all considered people of the book a Gradually over several centuries Christianity took over moving from north to south eventually in 1492 King Ferdinand and Queen Isabella took over They were very focused on the reChristianization of Spain when they forced non Christians to leave and convert They are the patrons of the Tempietto b Charles V was the grandson on Isabella and Ferdinand and eventually he inherited Spain and the title of the holy Roman Emperor He was concerned with eliminating nonChristian religions when he built the Alhambra over a mosque He also had the palace of the hon Roman Emperor Charles V built by Pedro Machura who designed the facade too be similar to that of the buildings in Rome The building features rusti cation and some of Bramante39s plans The palace has a central circuIar courtyard It features classic Doric cqumns supporting Doric tablature and ionic columns that are similar to that of the colosseum The only other building to feature a circular central courtyard predating the palace was the Villa Medici in Madama Roman that was designed by Raphael which was supposedly an archaeological reconstruction of an ancient Greek Villa He also approved the construction of a Christian cathedral over the Great Mosque of Cordoba II The Renaissance in 16th century France a Francois I was the King of France from 1515 to 1547 He was the rst king to rule entirely over the kingdom of France He also the rst of the French to aspire to the architectural revival of Italy The French were exposed to the Italian style and Francois believed that classical building display authority and power He worked very hard for Italian architects such as Michelangelo who was busy working for the Pope to come to France Leonardo da Vinci came to work in France through there are no known completed da Vinci works there From their relationship became the story that they were so close that da Vinci dies in Francois I39s arms i Chateau de Chambord is a palace or hunting lodge that was built for Francois I by partially an architect by the name of Domenico da Cortona in the 15205 The structure and interior where there is a structure inside a fortresslike exterior is an extension of medieval French architecture It is also symmetrical which is a classical idea that dates back to Vitruvius The towers feature a classical wallpaper of columns which ornament the tower to make it appear as if the building has three very large stories Francois39s initials are laid in stone above the windows to show who39s building it is There are also Romanesque halfcircular arches in the courtyard which support a Greek style tablature The roof of the Chateau is elaborate because it consists of many classically inspired structures that resemble the Tempietto There are large circular staircases throughout the building The interior staircase is a double helix in which two intertwined branches are used to reach the upper levels This may have been a da Vinci design as he had drawn similar staircases These staircases were large enough for horses to use ii The Louvre was a French palace that was built in about 1415 to house the monarchy as the French government became more centralized in Paris He rebuilt the modern Louvre because his house was incredibly dark and it did not re ect what he wanted to do as a ruler Royalty lived in the palace until the 180039s Only a small portion of the palace was designed for Francois l in 1546 by Pierre Lescot This section is made to look Roman or modern as a classic revival structure It is symmetrical and has signi cant sculptural ornaments that are classically French There are two Nikes holding the royal crest that are above captives that are Roman ideas Inside there is a musicians balcony from which music would be played Caryatids support this platform these caryatids are similar to the caryatids at the Erectheum on the Acropolis in Athens The idea for caryatids likely comes from the book of Vitruvius that was printed illustrates and translated into both Italian and in French Books were so important in the spread of Roman ideas throughout Europe Books were originally only held by incredibly rich because it took a 10 ocks of sheep to provide the sheepskin for the pages b Philbert de I39Orme wrote Architecture New Inventions for Building Well at Low Costs he also insisted on the architect and an intellectual professional He believed medieval architecture bad and classical architecture good He also gives the idea of French patriotism by creating a French order in that features banded uted columns these columns are practical because France did not have large marble quarries so megaliths could not be quarried instead these columns could be constructed in pieces De I39Orme39s most important work did not survive He built the Tuileries Palace for the French Queen Catherine who was originally not royal but from the papal Medici family The building was burnt down in the French revolution but it featured French ordered columns The Renaissance in England was important as it became a major power in the 16th century Midway through the 16th century the Gothic style is still the preferred style in England For example the King s College Cathedral or the Chapel of Henry VII in Westminster abbey which both feature fan vaults Similarly Little Morton Hall was a halftimbered Gothic house that was built in Cheshire between 14501600 It takes over halfway through the 16th century for England to notice the classical style which occurred during the reign of Elizabeth I daughter of Henry VIII which built King s College Cathedral who was an incredibly strong ruler She would travel across the country with her entourage to explore the country The rich had to be ready to host her and her guests therefore several prodigy houses were built a Longeat house was a prodigy house in Wiltshire that began in 1572 The house was designed by Robert Smythson who was a builder as architects did not exist as a profession in England yet The house has interior open courtyards that resemble the courtyards in which people would hide during the raid however the house is also open with a vast amount of glass which were a sign of wealth in the time the house was build The exterior is also adorned with classical elements such as Doric columns that support rosette adorned capitals and pediments at the entrances Smithson39s knowledge of classical architecture which he gained through reading Books were now available due printing technology It is still owned by descendants of the original owners On the interior there is a hall screened from the entrance This hall is a two story room which is lavishly decorated It features wooden hammer beam ceilings as opposed to Roman stone vaulted ceilings as the English were talented carpenters The house is now a money pit which is paid for by a safari and events being hosted at the location b Elizabeth Talbot was the Countess of Shrewsbury Known as quotBess of Hardwickquot she lived from 15271608 She was notorious because she married four times with each husband dying and leaving her their fortune before she herself died When widowed for the fourth time in 1590 she decided to build herself her own house called Hardwick Hall in Derbyshire which was built between 1590 and 1597 This was singular because women did not typically control money nor did they have much say in design Each oor of the house had different heights with the shortest oor being the shortest and the third oor being the tallest as it was home to social rooms that would be used if the queen decided to stay for a while On the rst ood there are classical columns with Doric capitals However like France they could not mine megaliths in England therefore the columns are made of several different stones The entrance of the house is classical because it is actually aligned with the entrance The hall a double storied and screened as was traditional and it also featured a musicians gallery Additionally the main staircase was exceptionally grand which was again built for the possibility of the queen39s visit The tallest third oor was designed and decorated for a visit from the queen It features painted plaster frieze which features Dianna the virgin huntress which was similar to the queen who was a virgin and had military prowess as she never married there are also large tapestries and two chairs one higher and one lower for the queen and countess respectively
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