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Gen Psychology (Week Seven Notes)

by: Jovani Jones

Gen Psychology (Week Seven Notes) PSYCH 1000 - 02

Jovani Jones
GPA 3.2
General Psychology
Dennis Miller

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About this Document

General Psychology
Dennis Miller
Class Notes
Psychology, General Psychology
25 ?




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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jovani Jones on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYCH 1000 - 02 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Dennis Miller in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see General Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Missouri - Columbia.


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Date Created: 10/18/15
Monday October 5 2015 Memory 71 What is Memory Information Processing 1 Encoding The information is acquired and processed into neural a Information is transferred from what we see in the real world b Information could be encoding in the way a keyboard inputs letters 2 Storage The information is stored in the brain a Different types of storage for memory b Consolidation Putting the information into storage c Information is stored much like a computer stores data on a hard drive 3 Retrieval The information is retrieved when it is needed a Reconsolidation Retrieving the information within storage b Information is retrieved much like information on a computer screen can be viewed Herman Ebbinghaus 0 Serial learning of nonsense syllables CVC trigrams 0 Sheets of paper were stored somewhere and studied a week later 0 Varied intervals for the time of learning 0 Forgetting curve remember from last week 0 Savings 0 Ebbinghaus demonstrated the serial positioning effect 0 Primary Effect Easier to remember things at the beginning of a sequence 0 Recency Effect Easier to remember things at the end of a sequence 0 Things in the middle tend to be lost in information encoding so it is not remembered as well I American Idol and Dancing With the Stars demonstrate this in the way people are judged I First and last people were remembered more than those in the middle 72 How Are Memories Maintained Over Time 0 Atkinson amp Shiffrin s Memory Model Box Model 0 Sensory input I Sight I Hearing I Etc 0 Sensory memory Unattended information is lost I Almost everything comes into sensory memory 0 Shortterm memory Unrehearsed information is lost I Capacity of shortterm memory is limited I The information we are using at any given moment 0 Maintenance Rehearsal Repeating what person wants to remember to encode the information 0 Longterm memory Some information may be lost over time I Once information is in LTM it is there forever I Retrieval Taking information from long term back to short term memory 73 How Are Memories Maintained Over Time 0 What is the capacity of shortterm memory its memory span 0 Waugh amp Norman s probe digit task 0 Memory Span task 0 Miller 1956 The limit is generally seven plus or minus two items I Or less I Chunking can quotincrease its capacity lClicker Questions 1 When listening in class you are class material walking home from class listening to music you are class information and taking the exam you are class information a Retrieving encoding storing b Storing retrieving encoding c Encoding storing retrieving cunahi book anger dht plant hunger paper sadness sunshine music disease surprise fired love test pizza electricity 2 As a researcher participant you study the list of words above When you are asked to recall the list which of the following words are you most likely to have trouble remembering a Book b Electricity c Music d Curtain Peter is taking the final exam and needs to know a term from Chapter 7 What part of the Atkinson amp Shiffrin model is used a Retrieval from longterm memory b Encoding to longterm memory c Maintenance rehearsal within shortterm memory d Attention from sensory to shortterm memory Lois is trying to learn the three parts of the memory model by repeating the names again and again What part of the Atkinson amp Shiffrin model is used a Retrieval from longterm memory b Maintenance rehearsal within shortterm memory c Attention from sensory to shortterm memory d Maintenance rehearsal within sensory memory Which of these types of memory can store the largest amount of information That is which one has the greatest capacity a Sensory memory b Shortterm memory c Longterm memory d All three have an equal capacity Wednesday October 7 2015 73 How Are Memories Maintained Over Time 0 Implicit Nondeclarative Memory Difficult to be put into words 0 Procedural A motor memory 0 Explicit Declarative Memory Can easily be put into words 0 Episodic Personal autobiography things that happen only to that person I Flashbulb A unique event that stands out in a person s life 0 Semantic Something that a person just knows and cannot explain it We use rehearsal to encode to Longterm memory 0 Elaborative Rehearsal Deep Processing 0 Taking advantage of the infinite capacity of LTM 0 Maintenance Rehearsal Shallow Processing 0 Surface level of the information 0 Not a lot of deep thought associated with it Why is elaborative processing better and how can it be used There are nine different ways 1 Visualization a Dualcoding Theory Analogue and symbolic codes i Remember things on multiple components ii Analogue and symbolic representation 2 Meaningfulness Effect a Words Pronounceable many associations to other concepts quotimageable i Learning how the individual person pronounces and attaches meaning to the concept 3 SelfReference Effect a Linking any sort of information to that person only b Kuiper et al 1982 i List of adjectives ii Describing Yourself vs Describing Presidents iii Recall the former 4 Von Restorff aka Isolation Effect a Using obvious cues to help topics stand out b More likely to remember things that stand out or are unique i Highlighting subjects in text book in order to help it stand out ii Use flashcards to isolate topics 5 SeductiveDetail Effect a Making something unrelated to the topics appear so attention is drown to it i Doodles on notes ii Highlighting everything on the page 6 Testing Effect a Why The material in different formats and codes are challenging and stimulate test conditions b Do practice problems to help learning and retention i Group 1 Material 9 Material 9 Test ii Group 2 Material 9 PreTest 9 Test 7 Generation Effect a Each person gets together and compiles quiz questions b Crutcher and Healy 1989 Arithmetic Problems i Group 1 Study 84 x 16 1344 9 Test ii Group 2 Study 84 x 16 9 Test 8 Spacing Effect a AttentionDeficit Hypothesis quotUse up resources with cramming b Encoding Variability Hypothesis Spaced sessions lead to different codings i Study 15 mins on 15 mins off 9 Test ii Study 2 hours on 2 hours off 9 Test 9 StateDependent Learning a Contextdependent learning iClicker Questions 1 For a professional baseball player his memory of the rules of baseball is a type of a Semantic memory b Episodic memory c Procedural memory d Implicit memory e Both C and D are correct 2 Which of the following is an example of episodic memory a Remembering how to ride a bicycle Remembering the name of your elementary school Remembering what happened your first day of elementary school Remembering how to throw a football Both A and D are correct 0906 Friday October 9 2015 75 When Does Memory Fail 76 How Are Memories Distorted There are different degrees of forgetting 1 Absentmindedness 2 Blocking a TipoftheTongue Phenomenon 3 Transience a Permanent retrieval failure b Permanent Memory Hypothesis once it s in LTM it s there forever so why would this happen 4 Interference 5 Amnesia a Explicit more than implicit memory b There are different types of amnesia i Psychogenic ii Source Amnesia 1 Crytoamnesia iii Central Nervous System Damage 1 Patient HM Henry Molaison in the textbook 2 Clive Wearing a Herpesviral encephalitis What is the role of the hippocampus and temporal lobe in explicit memories iClicker Questions 1 You study psychology class your freshman and sophomore years of college but the take an anthropology class your senior year You have trouble learning anthropology because of all the psych you learned This effect is most likely due to interference a Proactive b Retroactive 2 Based on the Atkinson amp Shiffrin model what is altered in Clive Wearing a Longterm memory is absent Inability to encode information Shortterm memory is absent Inability to retrieve information Sensory memory is absent DP9939


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