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# PsychStatsWeek8.pdf Psych 3301

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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah Wheeler on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 3301 at University of Houston taught by Sonya Stokes in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views.

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Date Created: 10/18/15

Psych Stats Week 8 Hvde Fennema amp Lamon 1990 0 Mean gender differences in mathematical reasoning were very small 0 When extreme tails of the distributions were removed differences were smaller and reversed direction favored girls 0 The gender differences depended on task Femaes were better with computation Maes were better with problem solving Men Women and Math 0 An accurate understanding of gender differences may not be found in significant effects Each distribution has variability Each distribution has overlap Con dence Intervals Point Estimate Summary statistic one number as an estimate of the population eg mean Interval Estimate Based on our sample statistic a range of sample statistics we would expect if we repeatedly sampled from the same population eg con dence interval 0 lnterva estimate that includes the mean we would expect for the sample statistic a certain percentage of the time were we to sample from the same population repeatedly Typicay set at 95 o The range around the mean when we add and subtract a margin of error Con rms ndings of hypothesis testing and adds more detail Calculating con dence intervals 1 Draw a picture of a distribution that will include con dence intervals 2 Indicate the bounds of the con dence interval on the drawing 3 Determine the Z statistics that fall at each line marking the middle 95 4 Turn the Z statistic back into raw means 5 Check that the con dence interval makes sense 0 Con dence intervals for Z tests M lower zoM M sample M upper zoM M sample Effect Size 0 What is effect size Size of a difference that is unaffected by sample size Alows standardization across studies 0 Increasing sample size will make us more likely to nd a statistically signi cant effect 0 Increasing effect size Decrease the amount of overlap between two distributions Their means are farther apart The variation within each population is smaller Calculating effect size Cohen39s d Estimates Effect Size Assesses difference between means using standard deviation instead of standard error d M39 0 Statistical Power 0 The measure of the likelihood to reject the null hypothesis given that the null is false The probability that we will reject the null when we should The probability that we will avoid a Type II error Calculating statistical power 1 Determine the information needed to calculate power Population mean population standard deviation sample mean sample size standard error based on sample size 2 Determine a critical Z value and raw mean to calculate power 3 Calculate power the percentage of the distribution of the means for population 1 that falls above the critical value MetaAnalysis Metaanalysis considers many studies simultaneously Alows us to think of each individual study as just one data point in a larger study 0 The logic of metaanalysis 1 Select the topic of interest 2 Locate every study that has been conducted and meets the criteria 3 Calculate an effect size often Cohen s D for every study 4 Calculate statistics and create appropriate graphs Factors Affecting Power 0 Larger sample size increases power 0 Alpha level Higher level increases power eg from 05 to 10 Onetailed tests have more power than twotailed tests Decrease standard deviation 0 Increase difference between the means The T distributions oDistributions of means when the parameters are not known 0 Using tdistributions Estimating a population standard deviation from a sample Calculating estimated population standard deviation 1 Calculate the sample mean 2 Use the sample mean in the corrected standard deviation formula S 2X M2 Nl Dot Plots 0 The dot plot is a graph that displays all the data points in a sample with the range of scores along the xaxis and a dot for each data point above the appropriate value 0 Dot plots serve a similar function to stemandleaf plots 0 The three steps to creating a dot plot 1 Determine the lowest score and the highest score of the sample 2 Draw an xaxis and label it including the values from the lowest through highest scores 3 Place a dot above the appropriate value for every score Psych Stats Week 8 Hvde Fennema amp Lamon 1990 0 Mean gender differences in mathematical reasoning were very small 0 When extreme tails of the distributions were removed differences were smaller and reversed direction favored girls 0 The gender differences depended on task Femaes were better with computation Maes were better with problem solving Men Women and Math 0 An accurate understanding of gender differences may not be found in significant effects Each distribution has variability Each distribution has overlap Con dence Intervals Point Estimate Summary statistic one number as an estimate of the population eg mean Interval Estimate Based on our sample statistic a range of sample statistics we would expect if we repeatedly sampled from the same population eg con dence interval 0 lnterva estimate that includes the mean we would expect for the sample statistic a certain percentage of the time were we to sample from the same population repeatedly Typicay set at 95 o The range around the mean when we add and subtract a margin of error Con rms ndings of hypothesis testing and adds more detail Calculating con dence intervals 1 Draw a picture of a distribution that will include con dence intervals 2 Indicate the bounds of the con dence interval on the drawing 3 Determine the Z statistics that fall at each line marking the middle 95 4 Turn the Z statistic back into raw means 5 Check that the con dence interval makes sense 0 Con dence intervals for Z tests M lower zoM M sample M upper zoM M sample Effect Size 0 What is effect size Size of a difference that is unaffected by sample size Alows standardization across studies 0 Increasing sample size will make us more likely to nd a statistically signi cant effect 0 Increasing effect size Decrease the amount of overlap between two distributions Their means are farther apart The variation within each population is smaller Calculating effect size Cohen39s d Estimates Effect Size Assesses difference between means using standard deviation instead of standard error d M39 0 Statistical Power 0 The measure of the likelihood to reject the null hypothesis given that the null is false The probability that we will reject the null when we should The probability that we will avoid a Type II error Calculating statistical power 1 Determine the information needed to calculate power Population mean population standard deviation sample mean sample size standard error based on sample size 2 Determine a critical Z value and raw mean to calculate power 3 Calculate power the percentage of the distribution of the means for population 1 that falls above the critical value MetaAnalysis Metaanalysis considers many studies simultaneously Alows us to think of each individual study as just one data point in a larger study 0 The logic of metaanalysis 1 Select the topic of interest 2 Locate every study that has been conducted and meets the criteria 3 Calculate an effect size often Cohen s D for every study 4 Calculate statistics and create appropriate graphs Factors Affecting Power 0 Larger sample size increases power 0 Alpha level Higher level increases power eg from 05 to 10 Onetailed tests have more power than twotailed tests Decrease standard deviation 0 Increase difference between the means The T distributions oDistributions of means when the parameters are not known 0 Using tdistributions Estimating a population standard deviation from a sample Calculating estimated population standard deviation 1 Calculate the sample mean 2 Use the sample mean in the corrected standard deviation formula S 2X M2 Nl Dot Plots 0 The dot plot is a graph that displays all the data points in a sample with the range of scores along the xaxis and a dot for each data point above the appropriate value 0 Dot plots serve a similar function to stemandleaf plots 0 The three steps to creating a dot plot 1 Determine the lowest score and the highest score of the sample 2 Draw an xaxis and label it including the values from the lowest through highest scores 3 Place a dot above the appropriate value for every score

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