Weekly Notes CHEM 1040 - 002
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Joerdan Notetaker on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHEM 1040 - 002 at Auburn University taught by Ria Astrid Yngard in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Fundamental Chemistry II in Chemistry at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Dr Yngard Chem 1040002 Exam Two Study Guide Ch 15173 Make sure to thoroughly read the chapters and work the practice problems to prepare for the exam Equilibrium the rate of the forward reaction is equal to the rate of the reverse reaction 0 Concentrations of reactants products are not changing with time The reaction quotient and equilibrium contstant o aAbB CCdD o Qc Kc CCD t la13b Magnitude of KC 0 When the KC is large the rxn favors the products 0 When the KC is small the rxn favors the reactants o If in between the equilibrium mixture contains comparable amounts of both reactants and products Heterogeneous equilibrium species in a reversible rxn are in different phases 0 Concentrations of solids and liquids don t appear in the equilibrium expression Manipulating the equilibrium expression 0 If the equation is reversed invert the equilibrium constant 0 If coefficients in the rxn are multiplied by a factor the equilibrium constant is raised to the power equal to that same factor 0 Hess s Law equilibrium constant for a net rxn made up of two or more rxns is the product of the eq constants for the individual rxns Gaseous equilibrium set up like the reaction quotient and the eq constant 0 Kp KCRTAn o Kp and Kc are only equal when the An0 Chemical Equilibrium and Free Energy 0 A rxn with a very large K has negative AG spontaneous o A rxn with a very small K has a positive AG AGAG relationship 0 AG AG RTan AG K relationship 0 AG RTan Le Chatelier s Principle 0 When you apply stress to a system at eq the system will respond by shifting in the direction that minimizes the effect of the stress 0 Stress can be I Addition removal of a reactant or product I Volume or pressure change I Temperature change 0 When the volume is decreased eq is driven towards the side with the smallest number of moles of gas 0 The addition of an inert gas that is neither reactantproduct will not change the equilibrium 0 Temperature changes I Endothermic reactants heat 2 products I Exothermic reactants 2 products heat Acids and Bases Arrhenius definition 0 Acid substance when dissolved in water produces H ions 0 Base substance when dissolved in water produces OH39 ions Bronsted definition 0 Acid proton donor 0 Base proton acceptor Conjugate acidbase pair only differ in one proton Factors affecting acid strength bond strength and bond polarity Hydrohalic Acids hydrogen halogens 0 HI lt HBr lt HCl lt HF increasing bond strength 0 HI gt HBr gt HCl gt HF decreasing acid strength Oxyacids 0 Increased electronegativity causes increased acidity o More oxygen atoms increases acidity Carboxylic Acids acid strength depends on nature of the R group IonProduct Constant of Water Kw o Amphoteric species that can act as an acid or base 0 Kw H300H39 o 25 C KW 10 x 1014 o in pure water Kw 10 x 10397 pH and pOH scale pH logH30 pH pOH 1400 pH 7 NEUTRAL pH gt 7 BASIC pH lt 7 ACIDIC Strong AcidsNEED TO KNOW HCl HBr HI HN03 HC104 HC103 H2804 0 Everything else considered to be weak Strong Bases LiOH NaOH KOH RbOH CsOH CaOH2 SrOH2 BaOH2 o Hydroxides of alkali metals and heaviest alkaline earth metals Weak Acids and K 0 KC Ka 0 Use the Ka and an ICE chart to find H and then calculate the pH 0 O O O O o If ionization is less than five percent then simplifying is allowed I ionization Heq weak acidinitial x 100 Weak Bases and Kb 0 Kc Kb 0 Use the Kb and an ICE chart to find the OH39 then calculate pOH then calculate pH Conjugate Acids and Bases 0 Strong acid has relatively weak conjugate base 0 Weak acid has relatively strong conjugate base 0 Strong base has relatively weak conjugate acid 0 Weak base has relatively strong conjugate acid 0 Kw KaIIKb Polyprotic Acids if Ka1 is lOOOx greater than Kaz the acid can be treated monoprotic when determining the pH Oxides of Metals 0 Metal oxide water 9 metal hydroxide basic solution 0 Metal oxide acid 9 salt water Oxides of Nonmetals o Nonmetal oxide water 9 acidic solution 0 Nonmetal oxide base 9 salt water Lewis Acids and Bases 0 Acid electron pair acceptor 0 Base electron pair donor Common Ion Effect extent of ionization of a weak acid decreases in the presence of a strong electrolyte that shares a common ion same holds for a weak base Buffers solution of a weak acid and conjugate base or a weak base and its conjugate acid HendersonHasselbach Equation 0 pH pKa logconjugate base weak acid Strong Acid Strong Base Titration o HClaq NaOHaq 9 NaClaq H20l Endpoint point where a change in color takes place Equivalence point before the acid is in excess Initial pH pH logH Between initial and eq point pH is excess of H Eq point acid complete titration pH neutral 4 After eq point base will be in excess pH on basis of OH excess Weak Acid Strong Bases Titration 1 Initial pH use the Ka 2 Between initial pH and eq point buffer 3 Eq point conjugate base pHgt7 Kb gt pOH gt pH 4 After eq point to get pH use excess OH sum 00
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