Gilded Age & Progression Notes
Gilded Age & Progression Notes AMH2097
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vrena Puentes on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to AMH2097 at Florida State University taught by Richard Soash in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 79 views. For similar materials see Nationality, Race, and Ethnicity in the United States in History at Florida State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
101315 The Gilded Age and The Progressive World 1870519205 Civil War early 1860 s Reconstruction 18651876 Gilded Age 18701900 Progressive Era 19001920 WW 19151919 Know order of eras Gilded Age Mark Twain came up with term Gild covering an item with a thin layer of gold ndustria Revolution Rapid growth w industries Large monopolies 1 or 2 individual companies control industry Ex Carnegie steel industry Factories were unregulated death traps No health care no AC poor sanitation mmigration Still lived in tenements still as bad as when lrish were there new vs old immigrant old N amp W Europeans lrish new S amp E Europeans Poland Italy Latin America Asia amp Middle East Over 20mill in a 40 yr period Poitica Corruption Poitica bosses who ran political machines in large cities Poitica boss runs political machine head Comes into power by bribing and intimidating immigrants in exchange for them to vote for who he wants Poitica machine votes ppl who put him into power Progressives The political reformer from the 1900 s and 1910 s Ex Theodore Roosevelt amp Woodrow Wilson Characteristics WASPS DemRep Middle or upper class Professionals doctors lawyers newspaper editors etc Tend to oppose the excess of Gilded age Ex Monopolies political machines bosses are corrupt Progressives are really hostile towards new immigrants bc they were voting corruptly Progressives believed in The people aka white middle class they referred themselves to this Believers of science and Experts of the day for advice But what if experts of the day are wrong ampor racist In medicine scienti c racism the attempt to use science to justify racist beliefs Didn t go through scienti c process data wasn t true The Germ Theory late 18005 Thru Louis Pastuer and Robert Koch we learn that infectious diseases caused by the spread of microorganisms germs Sound science but poor application didn t know how it was spread Widespread belief that immigrants were very germy Trachoma a bacterial eye disease that affects the inner surface of the eyelid Spreads by touch not airborne STD s sexually transmitted diseases scientists didn t understand that this was only transmitted SEXUALLY IQ Tests Created by Alfred Binet Nothing to do with race AT FIRST lnvents them to help identify French students who needed added help in class But you cannot measure intelligence by science alone There are also environmental factors that come into play American scientists take this and make it worse Use degrading words such as quotmoronquot and imbecile Applied this to race to generalize people IQ tests were used at immigration stations ex Ellis Island to deny entry Tests were in English and most immigrants didn t know the language done on purpose Ellis Island 18921954 Most well known immigration station Processed over 12 million immigrants 5000 a day Process Classes on ship 1 amp 2nCI classes wealthy immigrants or vacationers Steerage class poor immigrants If you are in 1st amp 2ncl class doctors came to you immediately and gave private examinations If you are in steerage you must go to Ellis Island and take a very steep set of stairs Meant to single out immigrants who seem unhealthy and were having trouble going up the stairs Used chalk to label their illnesseshealth issue mmigrants realized that being marked w chalk was bad So they tried to erase marks or ip clothes inside out If you were still marked when they got to you they separated you from your families taken to the side strip searched deloused check you for sores and use a button hook on you designed to ip eyelid inside out to check for Trachoma Then given IQ test in English made to fail them bias 80 of immigrants were labeled quotfeebleminded current day autism Countries are sending their best candidate lf failed then you were deported or send back on ship Eugenics Attempt to improve the quotgenetic shockquot of a century Makes mental and moral traits as hereditary and biological Ex If your grandfather was a drunk then their child is likely to be a drunk too and their kids as well Peope believed that whites were genetically superior Solutions to the immigration problem Positive Eugenics increase population of white people and give white people rewards to reproduce more Negative Eugenics reduce the number of undesirable ethnic groups from reproducing by forced sterilizations Some took place without telling the victim Doctors who believed in negative eugenics would target women Some sterilize woman while undergoing a different kind of surgery wo their consent Buck vs Bell quotThree generations of imbeciles is enoughquot Oliver Wendell Holmes Stats legal until the 1930 s When America went to war with Germany they realized that Hitler liked the idea of eugenics way too much They didn t want to be compared to Hitler The Extinction Thesis White southerners compare health stats for Af Ams from 18401860 and 18701990 Found that The black population grew slightly faster btwn 4060 than 7090 The growth rate of the black population in the late 18005 was far smaller than the growth rate of Whites during the same period White southerners believed that the black pop growing more slowly than the white pop was because of the downfall of slavery and they would become extinct quotWere doomed at no distant dayquot They were trying to rationalize the greatness of slavery Both ideals were racist but had 2 diff conclusions Scienti c Racism Sound science poor application Germ theory Fawed science terrible application IQ tests Terrible science even worse application Craniometry Eugenics movement Extinction thesis 1917 Immigration Act 1 Literacy test in order to enter the country Had to be able to read and translate the Bible 2 Banned men and women from entering who were Three D s dependents delinquents and defectives Dependents people who they thought couldn t work beggars or poor Delinquents those who caused probs criminals and alcoholics Defectives those who supposedly had something hereditary wrong with them mental illness epileptics Completely made by the Eugenics movement World War One Background 5 big powers in Europe British France Russia Germany and Austria Big power in Middle East Ottoman Empire Brit Russia amp France are allied against Germany and Austria America is initially neutral in the con ict bc they had ties to Germany and Brit Both of them are trying really hard to get America to join their side of the ght Brits are better at persuading Americans than the Germans New German stereotypes Came from Brit s racial discrimination of Germans Looked at as violent savages and inferior named quotHunsquot Made people think that German immigrants were invaders sent to spy on or sabotage the US They deliberately designed posters in America to make Germans seem terrible AntiGerman wartime laws Espionage Act of 1917 Sedition Act of 1918 amendment to Espionage Act You could not criticize the government the draft or the war or you will either be ned 10000 or sentenced to 20 years in jail German Americans had to register with US gov and have their ngerprints taken Germans who spoke out in favor of Germany were prisoners of the war 100 Americanism lmmigrants could not have a trace of your previous cultural allegiance Opposed quothyphenated Americansquot Hyper assimilation Acculturation vs Assimilation Accuturation you keep your traditions from your culture but are open to the other country s culture Assimiation you try to completely drop all aspects of German culture and be full American Germans HYPER assimilated tried to be involved in the American society as much as they could Peope couldn t hear music of German composers you couldn t speak German nothing German Gided Age similar to Virginia Model Progressive Age Massachusetts Model PostWar 1921 and 1924 Quota Acts The 1921 Act established a quota for how many individuals of a particular immigrant group could enter the country annually Quota 3 of a group s population in the US as of the 1910 Census They were hoping to screw up new immigrants The 1924 Act established a harsher annual quota New quota 2 of a group s pop in the US as of the 1890 Census fewer immigrants coming in to apply percentage to Barred Asian immigrants from entering the country as had already been done to the Chinese Quotas did not apply to the immigrants from the W hemisphere