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BSC 116 Week 8 Notes- Lectures 23 and 24

by: Alexia Acebo

BSC 116 Week 8 Notes- Lectures 23 and 24 BSC 116

Marketplace > University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa > Biology > BSC 116 > BSC 116 Week 8 Notes Lectures 23 and 24
Alexia Acebo
GPA 3.7
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth

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About this Document

A collection of the seventh week of notes from BSC 116 covering material from lectures 23 and 24!
Principles Biology II
Jennifer G. Howeth
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Alexia Acebo on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BSC 116 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Jennifer G. Howeth in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Principles Biology II in Biology at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.


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Date Created: 10/18/15
Lecture 2324 cells need to be capable of exchange with their environment all reactions resources in waste out 9 all cells need access Single and simple multicelled all have contact with medium 0 Short diffusion distances Larger multicelled somemost isolated from external environment 0 Diffusion distance too long circulatory systems vary in complexity Gastrovascular cavities lack specialized circulatory system 0 Can be simple branched Specialized circulatory system where diffusion distance long 1 Circulatory uid 2 Interconnecting tubes 3 Heart Open circulatory system 0 Fluid in direct contact with organs same as interstitial uid I Hemolymph o Lowers pressure can use uid as hydro skeleton body movement helps Closed circulatory system 0 Fluid in vessels separate from interstitial 0 High blood pressure faster delivery of oxygen nutrients Cardiovascular system 0 Pumping heart with 2 chambers I Atrium receives blood I Ventricle pumps blood away 0 Arteries carry blood away from heart I 9 branch into arterioles carry blood to capillaries o Capillaries venules 9veins I Carry blood back to heart 0 Arteries and veins distinguish direction oxygen content 0 More energy needed more complex Single circ fish with 2 chambered hearts Blood passes through 2 cappilary beds during circuit Lower pressure lower velocity 0 Aided by swimming muscles Double circ tetrapods with 3 or 4 chambers Humans4 Blood pumped through 2 separate circuits 0 Right side pulmonary circuit to lungs oxygenpoor blood to lungs 0 Left side systemic circuit to body High pressure high velocity 11 steps of blood ow 1 Right ventricle pumps to lungs Via the pulmonary arteries Blood ows through capillary beds of L R lungs Blood returns to left atrium via pulmonary veins Left ventricle pumps to body Via aorta including coronary arteries One branch leads to capillary beds head arms Other branch abdomen legs Deoxygenated blood drains head arms via superior vena cava 10 Deoxy blood drains ab legs via inferior vena cava 11 Both empty to R atrium R ventricle ow gweww Cardiac cycle alternates pumping and filling Cardiac cycle complete sequence of pumping systolecontracting and filling distole relaxing 0 Heart rate 72 bpm resting 0 Stroke volume 70 mL per ventricle in 1 contraction 0 Cardiac output 5 Lminventricle 4 valves keep blood from owing in the wrong direction 0 1 way aps o atrioventricular valve between chambers o semicircular valve between vent amp arteries 0 heart murmur defective valve leads to black ow pacemaker autorythmic cells of heart contraction based on electrical impulses begins at sinoatrial node cause atria to contract empty into ventricles relayed by atrioventricular node after 01s delay ventricles contract nervous system can speed up or slow down rate with activity level structure of blood vessels change with function all vessels have lumen lined with epithelium o capillaries smallest just higher than blood cell I thin walls for diffusion o arteries layer of smooth muscle then layer of connective tissue I thicker than veins I muscle I connective tissue 0 veins layer of smooth muscle and connective tissue I thinner I with valves arteries branch total crosssect increases velocity of blood decreases through the capillaries 0 slow velocity facilitates diffusion 0 speeds up again as capillaries coalesce into veins cross sect decreases pressure highest during ventricular systole o stretches arteries heart beats again before pressure completely dissipated o vascoconstriction vascodilation can change pressure during activity stress thermoregulation only a small fraction of capillary beds have blood owing through them at any time diverted to where it is needed 0 head heart kidneys usually running at capacity 0 blood skin control temperature 0 blood digestive with meal Exchange occurs by both pressure and diffusion oxygen and carbon dioxide exchanged by diffusion water moves by pressure 0 blood pressure forces water out at arterial end 0 osmotic pressure draws in at veinous end 85 of water recovered by capillaries rest returned via lymphatic system 0 network of small vessels that drains excess interstitial uid lymph o eventually returned to circulatory system 0 moves by smooth muscle contractio aided by skeletal muscle with series of valves Blood is composed of various cells and proteins in a liquid matrix open circulatory system circulatory uid continuous with interstitial uid closed circulatory blood more complex plasma 90 water with dissolved salts proteins gases wastes hormones etc cellular components 0 erythrocytes red 5 tril 1L oxygen transport 0 leukocytes white 10 bil 1 L o platelets cell fragments Clotting clotting damage plugged by platelets and reinforced by fibrin multipotent stem cells in bone marrow produce new blood cells Gas exchange occurs across respiratory surfaces gas pressure does not equal concentrations partial pressure of oxygen is the fraction of the total pressure exerted by air 0 oxygen 21 by volume x 760mm Hg 160 mmHg 0 PC02 029 mmHg Partial pressure of dissolved gas partial pressure in air but concentration depends on temperature salinity etc Gasses always diffuse from higher to lower pressure Oxygen more available in air than in water 2 1 of air 40x less oxygen in same volume water warmer saltier holds less All oxygen must be exchanged through water cell membranes need moist surfaces entirely by diffusion rate proportional to SA inversely proportional to distance respiratory surfaces are large and thin Aquatic organisms have more efficient gas exchange surfaces Less 02 available less wasted Various respiratory surfaces among invertebrates high vascularized connected to body cavity Fish have gills o SAgt body 0 Countercurrent exchange of respiratory medium maintained by ventilation I More surface through medium I Cap Flow in opposite direction I P02 in bloodlt medium I Very effective removes 80 02 o Gills don t work on land 2 common terrestrial adaptations for breathing air most common tracheal system insects Series of air tubes Gas exchange does not involve circulatory system Most familiar lungs vertebrates 0 Large infoldings of the body surface subdivide to increase surface area 0 Air through nostrils filtered warmed moistened To larynx via pharynx held open by cartilage opens to trachea o Trachea branches into 2 bronchi which branch into bronchioles I Surface covered by mucus O Ventilation of exchange surfaces achieved by breathing Amphibians positive pressure breathing 0 Push air in by shrinking oral cavity Mammals negative pressure breathing 0 Pull air by expanding thoracic cavity with muscles and diaphragm o Controlled by breathing centers in brain by negative feedback I Coordinated with circulatory system Birds are more efficient 0 Use posterior and anterior air sacs to regulate 1 way ow 0 No mixing of old air with new During exercise you need 2 L of oxygen per minute normal 1 L water 0045 L oxygen Oxygen transported attached to respiratory pigment hemoglobin reduces necessary cardiac output to 125 L min In erythrocytes 4 protein subunits each with Fe atom reversibly blinds oxygen subunits cooperative affinity varies 0 one binds to oxygen other increases affinity for oxygen 0 one releases oxygen other decreases affinity for oxygen presemce of carbon dioxide causes oxygen unloading


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