Lecture 13: The Ozone Layer
Lecture 13: The Ozone Layer GC 170A
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gigi on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to GC 170A at University of Arizona taught by E. Bigio in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see INTRO TO GLOBAL CHANGE in Global Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Rowland amp Molina Hypothesis 1 Suggested that UV radiation would split apart CFC molecules 2 Knew a free chlorine atom would destroy the ozone To prove their hypothesis They needed evidence of 1 Decreasing ozone levels 2 Increasing Chlorine monoxide ClO 0 They found evidence of decreasing ozone levels but concentrated over the S Pole ozone hole British Scientists At the S Pole Antarctica Observing since 1956 o 1977 observed a decreasing trend in ozone levels NASA Satellite launched in 1979 0 Ozone hole recognized in 1985 0 Still needed evidence of increasing ClO 1987 1 ClO levels increased over S Pole 2 Ozone levels decreased NASA ight through ozone hole Proved R amp M true showed de nitive proof of the link between CFC s amp Ozone Depletion Why is the ozone hole over the 8 Pole 0 Polar stratospheric clouds tiny ice particles accelerate chemical reaction of ozone destruction 0 Ice particles provide surfaces for reactions to occur 0 Long winter S Pole creates very low temperatures which causes polar clouds Discovered by Susan Soloman Ozone Hole s Seasonal Fluctuations o Grows in early spring in Antarctica Disappears as the spring progresses amp temps increase 0 When sunlight hits S Pole in September the UV Light initiates the process of ozone depletion Starts to recover in November 2002 Warmer temps amp less polar stratospheric clouds caused a smaller ozone hole Unusual weather patterns caused ozone to hole to split Chemical Industry 1970 s Response Argued R amp M were just speculative Feared econdamaging restrictions Chemical Industry Skeptical 1 How can you be sure CFC s reach Arguments stratosphere 2 CFC s are heavier than air so they stay in the lower atmosphere In reality the atmosphere is well mixed amp there are lots of mechanisms for the movement of CFCs 3 Its not the fault of chemical industry 4 Could be related to space shuttles 5 Once ozone hole was discovered they said it is part of natural variabilityamp will soon vanish Government s Reaction 1970 s Signi cant funding made to study 1980 s US amp other governments initiated a ban on non essential CFC technology like aerosol cans 1970 s amp 80 s Ozone Wars Key evidence in 1987 meant chemical industry couldn t deny it any more Montreal Protocol of 1987 Most successful international environmental agreement 0 Signed by all major industrial nations 0 Strict limits on CFC production 0 CFCs would continue to rise without this 0 Chemical Industry developed alternatives HCFC s 0 Today basically 0 CFC emissions Good news about the ozone Ozone hole is stabilized and may fully hole recover in 4050 yea rs Ozone story positive economic outcomes Why is it taking so long to restrict C02 Fossil fuel industry is much larger than chemical Much greater reliance on fossil fuels Alternatives not so easy to create
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