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Chapter 7 Notes

by: Kiana Thompson

Chapter 7 Notes 1010-07

Kiana Thompson
Introduction to Psychology
Nicholas Comotto

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Introduction to Psychology
Nicholas Comotto
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kiana Thompson on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1010-07 at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga taught by Nicholas Comotto in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 25 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Tennessee - Chattanooga.


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Date Created: 10/18/15
wpter 7 Thinlin2 amp Intelligence 1 Cognition Perception knowledge problem solving judgment language memory i Cognitive psychology field of psychology dedicated to studying every aspect of how people think a Concepts and Prototypes a Information sensations I emotions memories I thoughts b Concepts category or grouping of linguistic information objects ideas or life experiences 0 Prototypes best representation of a concept b Natural amp Artificial Concepts a Natural Concepts mental groupings that are created naturally through your experiences b Artificial Concepts concept that is defined by a very specific set of characteristics 0 Schemata a Schema mental construct consisting of a cluster or collection of related concepts b Event schema set of behaviors that are performed the same way each time also referred to as a cognitive script 0 Cognitive script set of behaviors that are performed the same way each time also referred to as an event schema 11 Language i Language communication system that involves using words to transmit information from one individual to another b Components of Language i Lexicon the words of a given language ii Grammar set of rules that are used to convey meaning through the use of a lexicon iii Phoneme basic sound unit of a given language iv Morphemes smallest unit of language that conveys some type of meaning V Semantics process by which we derive meaning from morphemes and words vi Syntax manner by which words are organized into sentences c Language Development i Overgeneralization extension of a rule that exists in a given language to an exception to the rule d Language amp Thought i Linguistic Determinism idea that language and its structures limit and determine human knowledge or thought as well as thought processes such as categorization memory and perception ii How do you think language in uences your perception III Problem Solving a ProblemSolving Strategies i Problemsolving strategy method for solving problems ii Trial and error problemsolving strategy in which multiple solutions are attempted until the correct one is found iii Algorithm problemsolving strategy characterized by a specific set of instructions iv Heuristic mental shortcut that saves time when solving a problem v One of the following five conditions must be met When one is faced with too much information When the time to make a decision is limited When the decision to be made is unimportant When there is access to very little information to use in making the PP Ni decision 5 When an appropriate heuristic happens to come to mind in the same moment vi Working backwards useful heuristic in which you begin solving the problem by focusing on the end result b Pitfalls to Problem Solving i Mental set continually using an old solution to a problem without results 1 Functional fixedness inability to see an object as useful for any other use other than the one for which it was intended ii Bias preexisting belief or presumption Anchoring bias faulty heuristic in which you fixate on a single aspect of a problem to find a solution Confirmation bias faulty heuristic in which you focus on information that confirms your beliefs Hindsight bias belief that the event just experienced was predictable even though it really wasn t Representative bias faulty heuristic in which you stereotype someone or something without a valid basis for your judgment Availability heuristic faulty heuristic in which you make a decision based on information readily available to you IV Intelligence and Creativity a Classifying Intelligence i Two components of general intelligence 1 2 Crystallized intelligence characterized by acquired knowledge and the ability to retrieve it Fluid intelligence ability to see complex relationships and solve problems ii Triarchic Theory Stemberg s theory of intelligence three facets of intelligence practical creative and analytical l 2 Practical intelligence aka street smarts Analytical intelligence with academic problem solving and computations Creative intelligence ability to produce new products ideas or inventing a new novel solution to a problem iii Multiple Intelligences Theory Gardner s theory that each person possesses at least eight types of intelligence iv Emotional intelligence ability to understand emotions and motivations in yourself and others v Cultural intelligence ability with which people can understand and relate to those in another culture b Creativity i Creativity ability to generate create or discover new ideas solutions and possibilities ii Divergent thinking ability to think outside the box to arrive at novel solutions to a problem iii Convergent thinking providing correct or established answers to problems V Measures of Intelligence a Measuring Intelligence i What are we concerned with 1 Reliability 2 Construct validity ii How do you create a reliable measure of a concept 1 Standardization method of testing in which administration scoring and interpretation of results are consistent 2 Norming administering a test to a large population so data can be collected to reference the normal scores for a population and its groups iii Intelligence Quotient IQ Test score on a test designed to measure intelligence 1 Developed by Binet 2 More modern version created by Wechsler 1939 amp variation used today 3 Is it valid b The Bell Curve i Representative sample subset of the population that accurately represents the general population ii How do we know if a distribution is normal 1 Find large sample size 2 Try to ensure it is a representative sample of the population you are interested in 3 Find Standard Deviations measure of variability that describes the difference between a set of scores and their mean iii Why measure intelligence 1 Curiosity 2 Cultural aspects VI Source of Intelligence a High Intelligence Nature or Nurture i Range of reaction each person s response to the environment is unique based on his or her genetic make up b What are Learning Disabilities i Learning disabilities cognitive disorders that affect different areas of cognition particularly language or reading ii Two common disabilities 1 Dysgraphia learning disability that causes extreme difficulty in writing legibly 2 Dyslexia common learning disability in which letters are not processed properly by the brain


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