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Module 8 Notes

by: Emilee Benos
Emilee Benos
GPA 4.0
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Dr. Cameron Lacquement

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Lectures & Powerpoint
Intro to Cultural Anthropology
Dr. Cameron Lacquement
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emilee Benos on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANT102 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Dr. Cameron Lacquement in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Intro to Cultural Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.

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Date Created: 10/18/15
MODULE 8 SUBSISTENCE GETTING FOOD 1 Food Collectors huntergatherers go out into nature to find your food 2 Food Producers horticulturalists pastoralists herd livestock agriculturalists intensive or industrial Most societies do both to acquire food 1FOOD COLLECTORS 0 FORAGING getting plant and animal resources food by hunting gathering fishing or gathering 0 Small communities 0 Nomads 0 Labor is divided by age and gender 0 Complex foragers amass some type of organization at a political level usually occurs in societies that utilize fishing 0 HUNTING 0 Male activity usually 0 Wide variety of tools equipment and techniques are used to hunt prey spears bow and arrow lithic technology atlatls etc 0 FISHING 0 Wide variety of tools equipment and techniques used to fish nets kites lines spears and poison O Societies closer to bodies of water are more permanent and therefore have more social complexity complex foragers above Pacific Coast New Guinea 0 GATHERING 0 Female activity usually children help 0 Females do this usually bc childcare is important to survival of society and the kids wont be too loud and scare away a tree or something its easier to watch kids with this job 0 Collection of wild plants insects eggs small amp slow animals etc 0 More important in warm climates O Inuit Aborigine 2FOOD PRODUCTION 0 Started 10000 years ago 0 Revolutionary change 0 Cause more ppl to live together which spreads disease 0 HORTICULTURE grow crops of all kinds w simple tools and methods Yanamomo 0 Larger villages Seminomadic Parttime political officials Infrequent food shortages Slash and Burn Swidden agriculture literally cut and burn tress and leave it a year to fertilize the ground then come back and plant there PASTORALISTS herding animals NOT ranching bc the primary goal is NOT to kill and sell its meat Pastoralists don t like to kill their animals they use them for their fur wool blood They will kill animals at a party or as they get older Focus on one dominant species Small communities Seminomadic Parttime political officials Frequent food shortages Moderate differences in wealth INTENSIVE AGRICULTURALISTS techniques that allow ppl to permanently cultivate fields Large population 0 Cities O 0 IO 390 IO 390 IO 0 0 Food shortages 0 Large differences in wealth 0 Full time politicaladministrative officials ECONOMIC SYSTEMS ECONOMIC ANTHROPOLOGY focus only on the economics of different people Economics amp subsistence are dependent on each other Every society has rules for work kind done who does it attitudes how its done who controls resources etc Basic forms of resources 0 Raw materials 0 Technology 0 Labor RAW MATERIALS LAND AND WATER 0 Rules for what is property amp who has access 0 Hawaii public beaches no one can own it 0 Allocation is related to subsistence practices TECHNOLOGY 0 and types of tools usedknowledge about how to use them 0 Bushman of the Kalahari 0 Related to subsistence practices LABOR 0 Labor is divided by age amp gender its universal Division by specialization ppl who are good at certain things do that thing Bushman of the Kalahari Related to subsistence practices Control labor voluntary and involuntary taxes Force labor ie slavery Corvee labor servanttype labor 0 Wage labor our kind of labor PRODUCTION the use of converting land labor and technology to cultural products for consumption 0 Means of production landtechnology needed to process nat l resources for distribution land tools materials machines 0 Mode of production how you do it human labor I Domestic family non industrialized societies I Tributary one family organizes over a lot of families I Industrial ppl that make the items have virtually no control DISTRIBUTION O RECIPROCITY giving and taking wo money I Generalized no expectation of return inner circle of friends I Balanced you expect something of equal value in return in a timely manner 0 Dinner parties you would expect to be invited to theirs 0 Buying round of drinks they ll buy the 2rld round I Kula Ring and Potlach system of exchange among islands NE of Australia 0 Long and dangerous voyages to exchange necklaces and armbands to earn prestige stay on friendly terms etc I Negative try to get something for nothing sell used car for more than its worth I Bartering gambling stealing cheating selling used cars 0 REDISTRIBUTION gathering goods or labor for the purpose of distribution again found in all societies but in more W political hierarchies I Goods ow up the system to a center amp ow down when needed up to a chief back down to producers I Potlach of Northwest Coast I Potlatchceremony 0 00000 I ceremonial feast w largescale distribution of valuables including food I guests must accept all gifts w understanding that they will reciprocate in the future 0 hosts gain prestige in proportion to giftgiving Validates chief status amp also a form of redistribution O MARKET EXCHANGE supply and demand determines quantity and quality of goods 0 CONSUMPTION 0 ECONOMYmajor subsystem of sociocultural systems 0 Economic systems differ according to ecology social organization and cultural definitions of appropriate patterns of social behavior THE KULA RING 0 Objects passed around clockwise and counterclockwise 0 The fact they ve traveled the entire circle gives them value 0 Ensures good relations among different tribes 0 Kula canoes have nothing to do W fishing 0 Carry up to 14 ppl 0 Launch is special eventdiff rituals performed before they set sail


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