CHE140 Lecture Notes
CHE140 Lecture Notes CHE140
Popular in General Chemistry I
Popular in Chemistry
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittany Notetaker on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CHE140 at Illinois State University taught by Dr. Chris Hamaker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 55 views. For similar materials see General Chemistry I in Chemistry at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
CHE140 Lecture Notes 101215 101615 101215 Lecture Atomic Radius Covalent Radius 0 The atomic radius is the size of an atom rue H s s quotfquot a o to II Be B C N O F Ne 39iquot quot39u39x39quot 11quot quot 15 quot1397quot 391 quot ha Mg Al SI P 3 CI Ar 539 if quot3951quot quot39239 quotquotquot 393 g 39i i39 quot239s 3395 31quot quotaquot 539 quotS39squot K Ca Sc TI V Cr Mn Fe Co NI Cu Zn Gva Ge As Se Br Kr 139 quot3 quot1quot quot 11quot 13 31quot 2399 go quot quot quot5 5quot Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In 8n Sb Te I Xe 39es39 5710 quot11quot quot39139239quot quotquot13quot quot3977quot quot39739quot quot1quot quot1 1quot 3916quot quot1quot 13 quot33 quot quot3932quot Cs Ba Lu Hf Ta W Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 1 Ir 139 39 quoti 139quot a quot3 39402 3913 164 105 ms 107 m we no m m m Fr Ra 39 Lr Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt UunUuuUub Uuq 39 l he lquot39 quotl quotv quot I Lquot quotl f39 01 I L lnthanlde sef es 2153 39 153 n39yigv quotan 391 66 6121 legisf ahaJ 4351 aka mg 139 39 i gr 1373 5 La Ce Pr Nd Pm Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb I CI mde series 5quot 15 39 quot35 mayquot ugr nw 915 gsv 141911 iJ l39V quotmugsp 1v olilu 1432 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am Cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No MI L39 quot1 1 1 1 i quot1 I39 394 Lquot o The atomic radius increases from top to bottom 0 Atoms get larger as we go down because you are adding shells ls Zs 35 etc o The atomic radius increases from right to left 0 Atoms get larger as you move right to left because you add electrons from left to right and the charge on those electrons lessen 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 1 1 1 2 13 14 15 16 1 7 18 H He 1 lt4 53 31 Metals B C N 0 F Ne 2 1 5 D Semimetals quot53 4quot 439 quotvquot 167 1 12 87 67 56 48 42 38 CI Nonmetals 3 Q E Q 190 145 111 98 88 79 71 118 4 COCOoooooooooaww 243 194 184 176 171 166 161 156 152 149 145 142 136 125 114 103 94 88 CQGiI 265 219 212 206 198 190 183 178 173 169 165 155 156 145 133 123 115 108 6 La OOOOOOOOOoooooM 298 253 208 200 193 188 185 180 177 174 171 156 154 143 135 127 120 o Electrons in lower levels can quotscreenquot the outer electrons o Shielding the proton does not feel the last electron in the outer shell 0 Zeff 9 the positive charge an electron quotfeelsquot this is the effective nuclear charge Orbital Penetration 0 Within the same n sgtpgtdgtf Radial distribution Jnction 5 1U S 139 2D rfa Atomic Size vs on Size 0 Cations are smaller than the parent ion 0 Anions are larger than the parent ion 0 Why 2 protons stay the same but the number of electrons change Na 11p 11e Na 11p 10e makes a cation loses and electron size decreases S 16p 16e SZ39 16p 18e makes an anion gains two electrons size increases soeectronic ons 0 Same electronic configuration 0 The protonelectron ratio determines how large or small the ion will be 0 The larger the protonelectron ratio the smaller the ion will be 0 The smaller the protonelectron ratio the larger the ion will be 0239 F39 Na Mg2 p protons 8 9 11 12 e electrons 10 10 10 10 Size pm 140 133 102 72 o Mg2 is the smallest ion because the number of protons compared to electrons is the greatest o 0239 is the largest ion because the number of protons comparted to electrons is the least Ionization Energy f Ionization energy is the energy it takes to remove electrons go off of the first ionization energy I 397 quot 39 39 1quot i39o U Be 8 c N 9 F Ne I 12quot quot1quot 391 quota 439 Na Mg AI Si P 8 CI Ar 7 239039 7 Ilia 25 r I quot28 V 13 3390 3 1 7 32 If 34 55quot I Ca Sc Ti 9r Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr is 71339 39Io ii quot3913quot 5 1439 quot39A 39 1539 1739 quot25quot quotIquot g quot4 395392 quot 2i 539 Fb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag Cd In Sb Te Xe 39539quot mo 3971 quotquot72quot 3993 3quot 3a quot 9 quot 8quot quot3 2 7 393quot quotif quotquot3 2 Cs Ba Lu Hf Ta Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 3quot mo 33 I3 iliilo quotIf quotR 39 quotIf Fr Ra Er Db 59 Eh Isz Mt Uun Uuu Uub Uuq Vmamdesms quot5 s quot3239 39639 quotm39 as 7 La Ce Pr Nd Prquot Sm Eu Gd Tb Dy Ho Er Tm Yb L mdl sries 939 96 VHSll 397 939439 7 65quot 1 9339 0 0 WWII MI C C Ac Th Pa u Np Pu Am cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No 0 Elements on the bottom are the easiest to remove electrons from and get more difficult as the elements move upward 0 Elements on the left are the easiest to remove electrons from and get more difficult as the elements move right Iomz quoton 00839 KJM O 250 200 0 Period 2 has some anomalies Element Li C F Ne IE1 520 1086 1681 2081 0 Generally the ionization energy increases but there are two anomalies in period 2 o The change between Be and B is negative as well as the change in N to O o Be s abbreviated electron configuration is He2s2 whereas B s is He2s22p1 I B requires less ionization energy because it is easier to pull electrons from a shell that is not full 2p1 compared to a shell that IS full 2s2 0 Beyond IE1 IE increases Traditional IE1 IE2 IE3 IE4 Charge 1 Na 496 4560 6910 9540 2 Mg 738 1445 7730 10600 3 Al 578 1815 2740 11600 o Removing electrons past their traditional charge requires more energy trying to remove from a full shell Electron Affinity 395 V I s o 7 s 939 Yo B C N O F Ne quot 339 quotinquot s39 to 1397 1 AI SI P 3 Cl Al 39 I 39 I II N l I A 392 z 2339 24 25 26 27 23 29 30 n 32 n u as u Sc Ti Cr Mn Fe Co Ni Cu Zn Ga Ge As Se Br Kr I 7 n 39 3399 3946 quoti quotquot712quot quotu quot 393 5 quotisquot 1739 quotaquot 391399 5 quota 52quot 1quot 539 Rb Sr Y Zr Nb Mo Tc Ru Rh Pd Ag In Sb Te Xe 39 5 3954quot 5710 a quot 72quot 5 71 quot2quot 9a Gs as quot5quot 8 2 3 a a Cs Ba Lu Hf Ta Re Os Ir Pt Au Hg Tl Pb Bi Po At Rn 7 8 r W t9102 7 11071 170 I Mh V gt 1 1 V d A A gt MA 3r Ra Er Rf Db Sg Bh Hs Mt uun Uuu U u b Uuq 39 arthamde senes L a Nd Eu Gd Tb Dy Y39b x 4 a z 1 LC ngdc germs 5 9 9 92 3 91 101 102 Ac Th Pa U Np Pu Am cm Bk Cf Es Fm Md No 0 Going up a group the atoms typically get more negative 0 Going from left to right in a period typically the atoms get more negative M quot F 30 7 141 4323 Equot 5 C11 4392 will r EjiEi39 1555 SE Elf E 4155 325 1 313 TE 1 E 1013 1912 95 5151 133 FA quotRulesquot 1 Group 18 all have positive endothermic electronic affinity 2 Halogens all have very large negative values they REALLY want an extra electron 3 Group 1 to Group 2 is the biggest difference Chapter 8 Chemical Bonds Ionic Bonding bond between a metal and a nonmetal o Electrostatic attraction between oppositely charged ions 0 One atom quotgives up an electron to the other Metallic Bonding bond between metals exclusively o The atoms electrons are pooled together creating bands causing conduction electrons flow through the bands 101415 Lecture Notes Covalent Bonding o Covalent bonding is the sharing of electrons 0 As the atoms move close to each other the nucleus of atom 1 quotfeelsquot the electrons of atom 2 and vice versa 0 Eventually the two nuclei will repel each other Ill 3 E 1 iunhr l a 5 i 1 Energy ebebrbecl n 135 when bbncl Iirl39ien bbntl E A IEH115 breelte bnd mend quota Enere39ri Energyji g g ebb IEL39I E E I11 5 SEIEI 4132 I 3 EEiI3I I r we 2m He trend rengrni Internu clearquot diele nee prnjl 0 At the minimum the attractive electrostatic force is maximized 0 Distance at the nucleus is the bond length 0 Energy at the minimum is the bond strength 0 Energy is given off when you make bonds 0 Lowering the energy of the electrons in covalent bonds Lewis Symbols 0 Represent the valence electrons in an atom 0 One dot per valence electron o the number of preferred bonds an atom will make is equal to the number of single dots Paired electrons Unpalred Unpaired electrons 39 electron 39 O O O O O O O O Chlorine Carbon 0 The goal of covalent bonding is to reach an octet 8 valence electrons 0 Lewis Structures are 2D representations of molecules showing how atoms are bonded together and how the electrons are distributed 0 Electrons are in pairs 0 are electrons shared in a covalent bond 0 quotbelongquot to only one atom in the molecule 1 NF3 a First determine the total number of valence electrons available i N 1 x 5e 5e ii F 3 x 7e 21e iii Total of 26e or 13 pairs b Second arrange the atoms as they are bonded together and add single bonds i This is represented by dashlike lines 2e per line c Next complete the octets of the outer atoms i Outer atoms are F d Lastly add the remaining electrons to the central atoms as lone pairs i Central atom is N e If the central atoms does not have an octet move outer lone pairs to make multiple bonds can be double or triple s in i in l N IE I J I I u I n t j i What about Polvatomic Ions 0 Each positive charge is one less electron to the total 0 Each negative charge is one more electron to total 101615 Lecture COClz I39DII II II i K II C03 3 C03 2 239 0 0 I o 0 C03 has resonance the true structure is an average of all possible resonance structures 0 The average is a 1 13 CO bond Electronegativity o Electronegativity is the ability of an atom to attract electrons to itself in a covalent bond 1 a gees N 11 Xi i Kr a 5 2 395 a a 5 2 a a A 9 a quot2 F21 392quot at 11 1 F21 a pfd 9 3d f3 a 2 g 54 3quot Li a 2 or F3 i 3 4 a i 5 an a A an a 4 fr 3 is a s a ll out ugh as c 5 533 p s a a L 5 a a in 91 1 131 5 l3 5 A an at a F2 in The electronegativity trend electronegativity increases as you move up the table and to the right of the table The most electronegative elements 0 F 40 o O 35 o N CI 30 Electrons in covalent bonds are not always equally shared 0 Bond polarity Polar covalent bonds 0 Unequally shared electrons 0 Different electronegativities NonPolar covalent bonds 0 Equally shared electrons 0 Am 0 C S Both have the EN of 25 AEN 0 Non polar bond F F AENO C O C has an EN of 25 0 Less electronegative meaning it has the electron less often giving it a slight positive charge 0 has an EN of 35 o More electronegative meaning it has the electron more often giving it a slight negative charge AEN Polar bond The larger the difference in electronegativity the more polar the bond o The smaller the difference in electronegativity the less polar the bond