PSY: 335 Lecture2_Notes
PSY: 335 Lecture2_Notes PSY 335
Popular in Psychology of Childhood
Popular in Psychlogy
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 30 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
CHAPTER 2 0 Major Perspective Used in Child Development psychodynam ic behavioral cognMve contextual evolutionary o The Psychodynamic Perspective 0 focussing on internal forces I behavior motivated by inner forces memories and conflicts I inner forces from childhood influence behavior throughout the lifespan o Freud s Psychoanalytic Theory 0 unconscious forces act to determine personality and behavior 0 unconsciousness is a part of personality I Id Ego Superego 0 according to Freud everyone s personality has 3 aspects I Id the raw unorganized inborn part of personality that is peresent at birth 0 pleasure principle most primitive nature of the person I Ego the part of personality that is rational and reasonable reality principle I Superego represents a person s conscience incorporating distinctions between rights and wrong 0 Psychosexual Development I Freud proposed a series of developmental stages I focused in particular biological functions and body parts I fixation is behavior and unresolved conflict 0 oral stage fixation eating chewing gum biting sarcasm 0000 0 Stages 1 Oral Birth12 18 months I interest in oral gratification sucking eating mouthing biting o Erikson s Stages trust vs mistrust I Positive feeling of trust from environmental support I Negativefear and concern regarding others 2 Anal 1218 months 3 years I gratification from expelling and withholding feces coming to terms with society s controls relating to toilet training 0 Erikson s Stages autonomv vs shame and doubt I Positive selfsufficiency if exploration is encouraged I Negative doubts about self lack of independence 3 Phallic 3 to 56 years I interest in genitals coming to terms with Oedipus conflict leading to identification with same sex parent penis envy o Erikson s Stage initiative vs guilt I Positivediscovery of ways to initiate actions I Negative guilt from actions and thoughts 4 Latency56 years to adolescence I sexual concerns largely unimportant o Erikson s Stages industry vs inferiority I Positivedevelopment of senses and competence I Negative feelings of inferiority no sense of mastery 5 Gential puberty and on I reemergence of sexual stages 0 Erikson s Psychosocial Theory I society and culture challenge each other 0 Accessing the Psychodynamic Perspective What are some of the important ideas put forward by Freud amp Erikson What are some of the drawbacks to their theories and conclusions 0 The Behavior Perspective 0 focusing on Observable Behavior I keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside environmental stimuli I notion that people universally past through series of stages rejected I developmental change viewed in quantitative rather than qualitative terms 0 Behaviorism I only consider what we can see what they do I nothing to do with thoughts on what they say Watson amp Skinner John B Watson I argued that by effectively controlling a person s environment it is possible to produce I ex exposed a child to white objects such as a white animal and would produce a loud sound in response to displaying the white object scaring the child making the child fear all white objects afterwards I guarantee to take any one at random and train him to become and type of specialistregardless of his talents penchants tendencies abilities vocations and race of his ancestorsquot 0 adult behavior is determined by the early experiences you have in cthhood theories based on Nuture based on conditioning can shape a human into any occupation o B F Skinner o argued that children operate on their environments to bring about a desired state of affairs I ex can produce an aversive behavior 0 Skinner Box I used to report what the organism did under certain circumstances I grid on the bottom that is electrified I two lights on the wall with food tray 0 used pigeonsrats Classical Conditioning 0 Stimulus Substitution Pavlov 0 Classical conditioningwhen an organism learns to respond in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not evoke that type of response I focuses on involuntary behavior I behavior results when response associated with one stimulus gets connected to another stimulus I bell and food 2 salvation I bell absence of food 2 salvation o Unconditioned Stimulus US food in mouth 0 Neutral Stimulus NS tone 0 Neutral Stimulus US 2 Unconditioned Response UR salvation o Conditioned Stimulus CS gt Conditioned Response CR I US UR I CS US 4 UR I CS 4 CR Operant Conditioning 0 a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened by its association with positive or negative consequences Reinforcement 0 process by which a stimulus is provided that increases the probability that a preceding behavior will be repeated 0 Negative removing an aversive stimulus when the desired response is produced Punishment 0 introduction of an unpleasant or painful stimulus or the removal of a desirable stimulus will decrease the probability that a preceding behavior will occur in the future Behavior Modification 0 formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones I teaching severely retarded people about language I helping individuals to stick with diets