PSY: 335 Lecture 3 Notes
PSY: 335 Lecture 3 Notes PSY 335
Popular in Psychology of Childhood
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Theories 2 The Scientific Method 0 The Codnitive Persbectiveexamining the roots of understanding 0 focuses on processes that allow people to know understand and think about the world 0 developmental researchers try to understand information processing in children and adults and how thinking and understanding affect their behavior 0 Piaget39s Theory of Cognitive Development 0 Human thinking is arranged into schemes 0 children s adaptation explained by principles of assimilation and accommodation 0 development proceeds in stages governed by brain maturation o Vygotsky s Sociocultural Theory 0 emphasized how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions between members of a culture 0 emphasizes reciprocal transaction between child and environment 0 recognizes cultural influences 0 his theory proposes continuous development c Other Approaches o Informationprocessing approaches I have become a central part of our understanding of development I they do not offer a complete explanation for behavior 0 Cognitive neuroscience approaches I look at cognitive development through the lens of brain processes I they consider internal mental processes but focus specifically on the neurological activity that underlies thinking problem solving and other cognitive behavior I work of cognitive neuroscientists is also providing clues to the cause of autism I critics of the cognitive neuroscience approach have suggested that it is sometimes provided as a better description than an explanation of developmental phenomena 0 The Biological Approach to Development Urie Bronfenbrenner 0 five levels of environment that simultaneously influence individuals 0 this approach emphasizes the interconnectedness of the influences on development 0 The Influence of Culture 0 Western cultures American European tend to be individualistic in nature while many Asian cultures Japanese Chinese are more collectivist in nature 0 the Individualismcollectivism spectrum is one of several dimensions along which cultures differ and it illustrates differences in cultural contexts in which people operate 0 Accessing the Bioecological Approach 0 some critics argue that the perspective pays insufficient attention to biological factors 0 still the bioecological approach is of considerable importance to child development suggesting as it does the multiple levels at which the environment affects children s development 0 Evolutionary Perspectives our ancestor s contributions to behavior 0 0 it draws heavily on the field of ethology which examines the ways in which our biological makeup influences our behavior emcom passes behavioral genetics which studies the effects of heredity on behavior some developmentalists are concerned that because of its focus on genetic and biological aspects of behavior it pays insufficient attention to environmental and social factors other critics argue that there is no good way to experimentally test theories because the biological development and inheritance of traits happened so long ago the evolutionary approach has stimulated a significant amount of research 0 Konrad Lorenz Why Which Perspective is Right is the Wrong Question 0 O the various theoretical perspectives provide different ways of looking at development considering perspectives together paints a fuller portrait of the myriad ways human beings change and grow over the course of their lives 0 Major Perspectives of Child Development 0 Psvchodvnamic Sigmund Freud amp Erik Erikson behavior throughout life is motivated by inner unconscious forces stemming from childhood over which we have little control I ex This view might suggest that an adolescent who is overweight has a fixation in the oral stage of development Behavioral John B Watson B F Skinner Albert Bandura development can be understood through studying observable behavior and environmental stimuli I ex In this perspective an adolescent who is overweight might be seen as not being rewarded for good nutrition and exercise habits Cognitive Jean Piaget emphasis is on how changes or growth in the ways people know understand and think about the world affects behavior I ex This view might suggest that an adolescent who is overweight hasn t learned effective ways to stay a healthy weight and doesn t value good nutrition Contextual Lev Vygotsky Urie Bronfenbrenner behavior is determined by the relationship individuals and their physical cognitive personality and social worlds I In this perspective an adolescent may become overweight because of a family environment in which food meals are unusually important and intertwined with family rituals Evolutionary Konrad Lorenz influenced by early work of Charles Darwin behavior is the result of genetic inheritance from our ancestors traits and behaviors are adaptive for promoting the survival of our species have been inherited through natural selection I ex This view might suggest that an adolescent might have a genetic tendency toward obesity because extra fat helped his or her ancestors to survive in times of famine The Scientific Method amp Research 0 Three Step Process 1 identifying questions of interest 2 formulating an explanation a specify a theory gt develop a hypothesis 3 carrying out research that either lends support to the explanation or refutes it a operationalize hypothesis gt select a research method gt collect data gt analyze data 0 the first step in the scientific method the identification of questions of interest begins when an observer puzzles over some aspect of behavior 0 developmental researchers formulate theories broad explanations and predictions about phenomena of interest Hypotheses Specifying Testable Predictions o a prediction is stated in a testable way 0 hypotheses are needed to determine the validity of a theory I ex spaced repetition of material to be learned is better than massed repetition if the goal is longterm retention 0 to determine the validity of a theory developmental researchers must test it scientifically Choosing a Research Strategy Answering Questions 0 Experimental Research I designed to discover causal relationships between various factors I involves a change deliberately introduced in a carefully structured situation to see the consequences of that change Correlational Studies finding that two variables are correlated proves nothing about causality o the Correlation coefficient quantifies the strength and direction of relationship between two factors the coefficient ranges from 10 to 10 Correlational studies can provide important information I for instance we know from correlational studies that the closer the genetic link between two people the more highly associated their intelligence Psychophysiological Methods 0 among the most frequently used psychophysiological methods I a brain scan using fMRI technology 0 The Experiment I a setting a pool of subjects variables constants I Random Assignment 0 critical step in experimental data participants assigned to different treatment groups or conditions strictly on basis of chance 0 Non Experimental Types of Research 0 Naturalistic observationan investigator systematically observes naturally occurring behavior and does not make a change in the situation I ex A researcher investigating carefully observes and records instances on elementary school playgrounds Archival Research existing data such as census documents college records and newspaper clippings are examined to test a hypothesis I ex College records are used to determine whether gender differences exist in math grades Ethnography careful study of a culture s values and attitudes through careful extended examination I ex A researcher lives for 6 months among families in a remote African village in order to study childrearing practices Survey Research individuals chosen to represent a larger population are asked a series of questions about their behavior thoughts or attitudes I ex A researcher conducts a comprehensive poll asking a large group of adolescents about their attitudes toward exercise Case Study an indepth intensive investigation of an individual or small group of people I ex An intensive study of a child involved in a school shooting is carried out by an investigator Psvchoohvsioloqical Research a study of the relationship between physiological processes and behavior I ex A researcher examines brain scans of children who are unusually violent to see whether there are abnormalities in brain structures and functioning 0 Measuring Developmental Change 3 Major Strategies 0 O 0 Longitudinal Studies measuring individual change I behavior of one or more study participants is measured as they age I researchers can understand general course of change across some period of life I by following many individuals over an extended time researchers can understand the general course of change across some period or life CrossSectional Studies I people of different ages are compared at same point in time I provides information about differences in development among different age groups I Selective dropout participants in some age groups more likely to quit than other age groups Sequential Studies a combination of longitudinal and crosssectional studiesstill have drawbacks examines number of different age groups at several points in time 0 Ethics amp Research I I Conclusions researchers must protect participants from physical and psychological harm American Psychological Association and Society for Research in CHild Development created ethical guidelines for researchers researchers must obtain informed consent from participants before their involvement in a study their use of deception in research must be justified and cause no harm participants privacy must be maintained 0 there are many ways to explore human development 0 different questions are better investigated using a variety of methods 0 precision and thoroughness are necessary to advance scientific literature