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PSY: 335 Lecture 7 Notes

by: Emily.nicole

PSY: 335 Lecture 7 Notes PSY 335

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Psychlogy > PSY 335 > PSY 335 Lecture 7 Notes
GPA 4.0
Psychology of Childhood
W. Wood

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About this Document

Class notes lecture 7.
Psychology of Childhood
W. Wood
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 10/18/15
Piaget s Approach to Cognitive Development 0 knowledge is the product of direct motor behavior 0 knowledge not acquired from facts communicated by others or through sensation and perception assumed that all children pass through a series of four universal stages in a fixed order from birth through adolescence sensorimotor gt preoperationale concrete operational gt formal operational O Assimilation the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking Accommodation changes in existing ways of thinking that occur in response to encounters with new stimuli or events TABLE Piaget s Six Substages of the Sensorimotor Stage Sabotage Substage ll Simple reflexes Sulhstage 2 First habits andl primary circular reactions Suh stage 3 Secondary circular reactions Sabotage 4 ISotndination of secondary circular reactions Sultistage 5 Tertiary circular reactions Sulhstage 6 Beginnings of thought Age First month of life From 1 to 4 months From ii to 8 months From 8 to 12 months From 12 to 18 months From 18 months to 2 years Description During this period the various reflexes that determine the infants interactions with the world are at the center of its cognitive life it this age infants begin to coordinate what were separate actions into single integrated activities During this period infants take major strides in shifting their cognitive horizons beyond themselves and begin to act on the outside world in this stage infants begin to use more caiculated approaches to producing events coordinating severai schemes to generate a single act They achieve object permanence during this stage lit this age infants develop what Piaget regards as the deliberate variation of actions that bring desirable consequences Rather than just repeat enjoyable activities infants appear to carry out miniature experiments to observe the consequences The major achievement of Substage 6 is the capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought Piaget argued that only at this stage can infants imagine where objects that they cannot see might be Example The sucking reflex causes the infant to such at anything placed in its lips Tin infant might combine grasping an object with sucking on it or staring at something with touching it A chitd who repeatedly piclks up a rattle in her crib and shakes it in different ways to see how the sound changes is demonstrating her ability to modify her cognitive scheme about shaking rattles An infant wilt push one toy out of the way to reach another toy that is tying partially exposed under it e chillld will drop a toy repeatedly varying the position from which he drops it carefully observing each time to see where it falls Children can even plot in their heads unseen trajectories of objects so that if a ball rollls under a piece of furniture they can figure out where it is likely to emerge on the other side Substage 1 Simple Reflexes lnborn reflexes create center of a baby s physical and cognitive life determine nature of his or her interactions with the world Developing reflexes Some of reflexes begin to accommodate infant s experience Substage 2 First Habits and Primary Circular Reactions 0 Infants begin to coordinate separate actions into single integrated activities focused on their own body 0 If an activity engages a baby s interests infant may repeat it simply for the sake of continuing to experience it Substage 3 Secondary Circular Reactions 0 Infants begin to act upon outside world 0 Infant s activity involves actions relating to the world outside Substage 4 Coordination of Secondary Circular Reactions 0 Infants begin to employ goaldirected behavior and repeat enjoyable activities 0 Several schemes are combined and coordinated to generate a single act Substage 5 Tertiary 0 Circular Reactions 0 Infants develop schemes regarding deliberate variation of actions that bring desirable consequences 0 Infants carry out miniature experiments to observe the consequences Substage 6 o Beginnings of Thought 0 The major achievement of Substage 6 is the capacity for mental representation or symbolic thought Intellectual Development 0 Preschooler Intellectual Sophistication 0 Creativity and imagination leap to new heights 0 Language is increasingly sophisticated O Reasoning and thinking about the world in new ways Piaget s Stage of Preoperational Thinking 0 Time of both stability and great change 0 Preoperational stage lasts from the age of 2 years until around 7 years 0 Piaget s Stage of Preoperational Thinking 0 Children are not yet capable of operations organized formal logical mental processes I Can carry out operations at end of this period The Relation Between 0 Language and Thought 0 Piaget suggests language and thinking are tightly interconnected I Symbolic function 0 Use of language allows children thinking beyond present to future Centration What You See 0 Is What You Think O Inability to consider all available information about stimulus 0 Focus on superficial obvious elements that are within sight 0 External elements come to dominate preschoolers thinking leading to inaccuracy in thought Conservation Learning That Appearances Are Deceiving o Preschoolers cannot understand that changes in one dimension do not necessarily mean that other dimensions change 0 Lack of conservation also manifests itself in children s understanding of area 0 Conservation Task number length liquid matter Incomplete Understanding of Transformation 0 Children in the preoperational period are unable to envision or recall successive transformations Conclusions Piaget s theory suggests that development is predictable and lawful The age of transition may vary but the order is fixed Stages are not necessarily demarcated by bright lines Elements of the next stage might start to appear before the child can operate competently in that next stage w n l39 G i t n EtaErna E m lgura tim Trnsafunma n Flnl m l lgura m Liq LJiij quantify FEW lav11er 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