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PSY: 335 Lecture 9 Notes

by: Emily.nicole

PSY: 335 Lecture 9 Notes PSY 335

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Psychlogy > PSY 335 > PSY 335 Lecture 9 Notes
GPA 4.0
Psychology of Childhood
W. Wood

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Class notes lecture 9.
Psychology of Childhood
W. Wood
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 10/18/15
Chapter 8 Language Acquisition Vygotsky s Perspective 0 Viewed cognitive development as a result of social interactions 0 Proposed children learn through guided participation working with mentors to solve problems Suggested children gradually grow intellectually and begin to function on their own Contended that the nature of the partnership between developing children and adults and peers is determined largely by cultural and societal factors The Zone of Proximal Development amp Scaffolding Foundations of Cognitive Development 0 the process of scaffolding not only helps children solve specific problems but aids in the development of their overall cognitive abilities How to Solve a Puzzle 0 Guidance and motivation 0 Structure the task to make the solution more attainable 0 provide motivation 0 Guided participation 0 partners tutor and child interact O The tutor is sensitive and responsive to the needs of the child 0 eventually because of such mutuality the child is able to succeed independen y Vygotsky Children as Apprentices 0 Children do not strive alone their efforts are embedded in social context 0 parents guide young children s cognitive growth in many ways I present new challenges for learning I offer assistance and instruction I encourage interest and motivation Vygotsky s Approach to Cognitive Development and Classroom Instruction 0 Supports practice of children actively participating in their educational experiences 0 Provides a foundation for several current and noteworthy educational innovations 0 Uses reciprocal teaching to teach reading comprehension strategies Evaluating Vygotsky s Contributions 0 It represents a consistent theoretical system 0 It helps explain the growing body of research attesting to the importance of social interaction and cognitive development 0 It advances our understanding of cognitive development Theories of Language Learning Theory One Infants Need to Be Taught o B F Skinner Verbal Behavior 1957 noticed that spontaneous babbling is usually reinforced and suggest that language was learned like every other skill 0 He suggested that parents are expert teachers 0 Frequent repetition of words is instructive especially when linked to daily life 0 Welltaught infants become wellspoken children Theory Two Infants Teach Themselves o Noam Chomsky s wrote Syntactic Structures 1959 proposing a Language Acquisition Device as a mental structure that enables humans to learn language including the basic aspects of grammar vocabulary and intonation o Chomsky argued that Skinner s explanation was could not be right because of the poverty of the stimulus The Roots of Language From Sounds to Symbols 0 Language is the systematic meaningful arrangement of symbols or signs which provides the basis for communication 0 For a system of signs to be a language it must be infinitely recursive Early Language 0 What is acquired o Receptively o Phonemic discrimination o Syntactic patterns 0 Expressively 0 Muscle control and breathing control The Whole Picture 0 Language has several formal characteristics that must be mastered as linguistic competence is developed They include o Phone cs o Semantics o Morphemics o Syntax o Pragmatics Universal Phonemic Awareness 0 Babbling produces many phonemes not found in the language environment Phonemes o phoneme single sound that may or may not convey meaning 96 universal phonemes 0 There are about 44 phonemes used in American English Overextension The overly broad use of words overgeneralizing their meaning Underextension The overly restrictive use of words common among children just mastering spokenlanguage International Phonetic Chart Early Vocalizations o Babbling O Deaf Babbling Hearing impaired children display manual babbling behavior similar to hearing children s verbal babbling o Cooing Language Development During the Preschool Years 0 By the time a preschooler is 3 the various combinations reach into the thousands 0 correct in grammatical constructions more than 90 of the time


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