PSY: 335 Lecture 11 Notes
PSY: 335 Lecture 11 Notes PSY 335
Popular in Psychology of Childhood
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
PHYSICAL GROWTH The Rapid Advances of Infancy Infants grow at a rapid pace over the first 2 years of their lives by the age of 5 months the average infant s birth weight has doubled to around 15 pounds By their 1st Bday the baby s weight tripled to 22 pounds the weight gains of infancy are matched by increased length at the end of the 1st year the typical baby grows almost a foot and is 30 in tall The Major Principles Governing Growth 0 Body amp Brain 0 young children s body and brain develop according to powerful epigenetic forces 0 biologically driven socially guided The Path of Development 0 adult cells can be coaxed into reverting to something like stem cells that then have equipotentiality 0 thus our findings indicate that epigenetic fate determination of mammalian cells can be markedly converted in a contextdependent manner by strong environmental cues Changes in Body And Structure preschool years 0 less chubby and roundish and more slender 0 increases strength and muscle size 0 sturdier bones 0 continued sense organs development What do You Think Howmight biology and environment combine to affect the physical growth of a child adopted as an infant from a developing country and reared in a more industrialized one abiity to grasp eat Height and weight Changes Height Native born children in the United States grow an average of 2 to 3 inches a year By age 11 the average height for girls is 4 feet 10 inches and the average height for boys is slightly shorter at 4 feet 9 12 inches Weight Weight gain follows a similar pattern Weight is redistributed Growth during Adolescence The Rapid Pace of Physical and Sexual Maturation o Adolescence the developmental stage between childhood and adulthood o Adolescent growth spurt a period of very rapid growth in height and weight during adolescence The Growing Brain 0 Myelin protective insulation that surrounds parts of neurons 0 relative to rapid growth o by the end of preschool period some parts of the brain have undergone particularly significant growth Paving the way for Cognitive growth 0 there is an increase in the number and complexity of neurons in adolescent thinking 0 development in prefrontal cortex continues 0 changes in regions involving dopamine sensitivity and production are significant Lateralization the process whereby certain functions are located more in one hemisphere of the brain than in the other 0 increasing differentiation and specialization in 2 hemispheres o in most respects the 2 hemispheres act in tandem and brain is resilient Environmental Influences on Brain Development 0 Plasticity the degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is modifiable o Sensitive or Critical Periods periods during which the development of a particular brain function is most crucial or necessary Gross Motor Skills 0 By 3 years old children have mastered a variety of skills jumping hopping on one foot skipping and running 0 By 4 and 5 their skills have become honed as they have gained greater control over their muscles 0 one important improvement in gross motor skills is in the realm of muscle coordination o for instance most schoolaged children can readily ride a bike iceskate swim and skip rope skills that earlier the could not perform well Activity Level advances in gross motor skills 0 brain development and myelination of neurons in areas of the brain related to balance and coordination help advance these skills a there is significant variations among children 0 there are differences and inherited temperament Should sexes be seperated u there is no reason to separate the sexes in physical exercise and sports until puberty when the smaller size of females begins to make them more susceptible to injury in contact sports Fine Motor SKills c at the same time that gross motor skills are developing children are progressing in their abilityto use fine motor skills which involve smaller more delicate body movements 0 effect of increased levels of myelin in the brain Handedness Separating Righties From Lefties o Handedness A clear preference for the use of one hand over the other o By the age of 5 most children display a clear tendency to use one hand over the other 90 percent of children are righthanded and 10 percent are lefthanded 0 Some evidence exists that lefthandedness may be associated with certain advantages Conclusions 0 physical development is by nature and nurture 0 much of what we see as physical development is dependent on brain development c skill development can contribute throughout the lifespan
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