PSY: 335 Lecture 13 Notes
PSY: 335 Lecture 13 Notes PSY 335
Popular in Psychology of Childhood
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Intelligence What is Intelligence Is it a general characteristic of each person s cognitive ability g as Charles Spearman claimed Is it composed of three Robert Sternberg or nine Howard Gardner distinct faculties Is it in part our ability to interpret the emotional state of others and control our own emotions appropriately Alfred Binet 18571911 The BinetSimon Test First used in 1905 The purpose of this testing was to identify abnormal children who needed special help Binet s Principles For Testing The scores are a practical device they do not buttress any theory of intellect They do not define anything innate or permanent We may not designate what they measure as quotintelligencequot or any other reified entity The scale is a rough empirical guide for identifying mildly retarded and learningdisabled children who need special help It is not a device for ranking normal children Whatever the cause of difficulty in children identified for help emphasis shall be placed upon improvement through special training Low scores shall not be used to mark children as innately incapable Lewis Terman 18771956 quotGenius and Stupidity A Study of the Intellectual Processes of Seven quotBrightquot and Seven quotStupidquot Boysquot 1 Tests of invention and creative imagination A typical test of logical processes Several tests of mathematical ability Anagrams blanks in stories and reading aloud to demonstrate language mastery Interpretation of fables Skill in learning the game of chess Memory tests and OOIOU IDOOIJ Tests of motor skill The Uses of Intelligence Tests Lewis M Terman 1916 Applying this to school children it means that without such tests we cannot know to what extent a child39s mental performances are determined by environment and to what extent by heredity Terman s American Intelligence Intelligence Quotient IQ the ratio of mental age ma to chronological age ca multiplied by 100 IQ maca x 100 on contemporary tests the average performance for a given age is assigned a score of 100 Measuring IQ PresentDay Approaches to Intelligence 0 Stanford BinetBinet Intelligence Scale Fifth Edition SBS A test that consists of a series of items that vary according to the age of the person being tested Intelligence Scale Fifth Edition SBS A test that consists of a series of items that vary according to the age of the person being tested 0 Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children Fourth Edition WISCIV A test for children that provides separate measures of verbal and performance nonverbal skills as well as a total score David Wechsler o Wechsler developed the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale WAIS and later the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children WISC an intelligence test for school aged children Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale 0 WAIS the WAIS measures overall intelligence and 11 other aspects related to intelligence that are designed to assess Clinical and educational problems Measuring IQ PresentDay Approaches to Intelligence 0 Kaufman Assessment Battery for Children Second Edition KABCII An intelligence test that measures children s ability to integrate different stimuli simultaneously and stepbystep thinking Fairness in IQ Testing 0 Reliability It exists when a test consistently measures what it is supposed to measure 0 Consistency is important in IQ testing 0 Validity A test measures what it should measure 0 Tests can be reliable but not valid 0 IQ tests should be both reliable and valid Flynn Effect o In the past 60 years intelligence scores have risen steadily by an average of 27 points This phenomenon is known as the Flynn effect The Flynn Effect Jim Flynn o Observes an increase of general intelligence of about 3 points per decade in the United States 0 Test are renormed about every 17 years 0 This makes the test more difficult o Renorming changes the score of a child in the borderline retarded group by 56 points 0 What consequences does this have Counteracting Cultural Bias in IQ Tests 0 Culturefair IQ tests are designed to be independent of the cultural background of test takers 0 Raven Progressive Matrices Test 0 System of Multicultural Pluralistic Assessment Learning Disabilities 0 Learning disabilities LDs are diagnosed when there is a discrepancy between a student s IQ and his academic performance Children with LDs may be subjected to unfair IQ tests Normal IQ tests may fail to detect abnormal learning eg kids with ADHD Contemporary Intelligence Theories 0 Howard Gardner 1983 1999 supports the idea that intelligence comes in multiple forms Gardner notes that brain damage may diminish one type of ability but not others Howard Gardner Gardner proposes eight types of intelligences and speculates about a ninth one existential intelligence Existential intelligence is the ability to think about the question of life death and existence Robert Sternberg o Sternberg 1985 1999 2003 also agrees with Gardner but suggests three intelligences rather than eight 0 Componential intelligence processing and analyzing information 0 Experiential intelligence insight especially in abstract reasoning situations 0 Contextual intelligence practical ability in everyday living Should Schools Teach Emotional Intelligence 0 Goleman argues that emotional literacy should be a standard part of the school curriculum
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