PSY: 335 Lecture 14 Notes
PSY: 335 Lecture 14 Notes PSY 335
Popular in Psychology of Childhood
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Intelligence 2 What Is Infant Intelligence 0 Developmental experts do not agree on a general definition of intelligent behavior even among adults 0 Several approaches devised to investigate nature of individual differences in infant intelligence Approaches Developmental quotient Bayley Scales of Infant Development Visuairecognition memory measurement TABLE 94L Approaches Used to Detect Differences in Intelligence during infancy iFormuiated by Arnold Desell the developmental quotient is an overall developmental score that relates to performance in four domains motor skills Ibalance and sitting language use adaptive behavior alertness and exploration and personalsociai behavior Developed by i iancy Bayley the Dayiey Scaies of infant Development evaluate an infant39s development from 2 to 42 months The Bayley Scales focus on two areas mental senses perception memory learning problem solving and language and motor abilities fine and grossmot0r skills Measures of visuaiirecogni tion memory the memory of and recognition of a stimurius that has been previously seen aiiso relate to inteiligence The more quickiy an infant can retrieve a representation of a stimulus from memory the more efficient presumably is that infants information processing Bayley Scales Age iMentali Scale Motor Scaiie TABLE 92 Sample items from the Bayley Scales of infant Development 2 montihs Turns head to locate origin of sound Visiny responds to disappearance of face Can hold head steady and erect for 15 seconds Sits with assistance 6 months Picks up cup hy handie Notices iliustrations in a book Sits up without aid for 30 seconds Grasps foot with hands 12 months Constructs tower of 2 cubes Can turn pages in a book Walks when holding onto someone39s hand or furniture Holds pencii in fist 17 1 9 months Mimics crayon stroke iahels objects in photo Stands on right foot without help Remains upright climbing stairs with assistance 23 25 months Pairs up pictures Repeats a 2 word sentence Strings 3 beads Jumps length of ii inches 3842 months Can identify 4 colors Past tense evident in speech Distinguisihes gender Can reproduce drawing of a circie iIops two times on one foot Descends stairs alternating feet Source Based on Bayley N 7 l993 Bayi39ey scaies of infant development BSI D Hi 2nd ed San Antonio TX The Psychologicai Corporation InformationProcessing Approaches to Individual Differences in Infant Intelligence Contemporary Approaches 0 Suggest that infant information processing speed may correlate most strongly with later intelligence Genetic and Environmental In uences on Intelligence 0 Twin and Adoption Studies 0 Heritability 0 Environmental In uences C Group Differences in Intelligence Test Scores o The Question of Bias Group Differences in IQ 0 Prior experiences examples cultural background and experiences do have the potential to affect intelligencetest scores 0 Many educators suggest that traditional measures of intelligence are subtly biased Explaining Racial Differences in IQ o The issue of how cultural background and experience influence IQtest performance has led to considerable debate among researchers 0 The debate has been fueled by the finding that IQ scores of certain racial groups are consistently lower on average than the IQ scores of other groups 0 The issue is important because of its social implications The Bell Curve Controversy Herrnstein and Murray 0 Average 15point IQ difference between Whites and African Americans is due primarily to heredity rather than to environment Counter Argument 0 Many experts in the area of IQ were not convinced by The Bell Curve contention Today 0 IQ is viewed as product of complex nature and nurture interaction Genetic Influences Lower correlation thari Imll rlty Of 13900 ideritical twiris reared Intelllgence 090 togethershows some scores 7 7 environmental effect I 7 030 Lower correlation tlnanl correlation identicaltwinisshiows 070 i genetic effects 060 i 050 7 040 030 020 0l0 Identical Identical Fraternal Siblings Unrelated twins twins twins reared individuals reared reared reared together reared together apart together together 035 Childparent correlation 030 in verbal ability scores 025 020 Childlrenl and their E lbirth parents m5 Adopted childrenl and tlheir loirth parents m 0 Adopted children aniol 0 05 their adoptive parents 39 000 3 years 16 years Environmental Influences o the Schooling Effect Intelligence test score gains relative i15 L l cl Vb l39 to gra e 4 aseine Grade 6 1 06 Grade 5 MO Grade 4 r 97 i 10 i 15 i120 i 25 i130 i 35 i 40 145 i 50 Age in montlhs Other Environmental Effects 0 Number of books in the home 0 Regular family dinners 0 Amount of video time Mainstreaming and Full Inclusion 0 Least restrictive environmentthe setting most similar to that of children without special needs 0 Mainstreaming an educational approach in which exceptional children are integrated into the traditional educational system and are provided with a broad range of educational alternatives 0 Full lnclusion the integration of all students even those with the most severe disabilities into regular classes and all other aspects of the community Below the normlntellectual Disability 0 Measurement of limitations in intellectual functioning o More difficult to determine how to gauge limitations in adaptive behavior Above the Norm The Gifted amp Talented o Enrichment Approach approach in which students are kept at grade level but are enrolled in special programs and are given individual activities to allow greater depth study of a given topic Conclusions 0 Intelligence manifests itself in many ways 0 Some differences in intelligence appear to reduce a person s ability to process information o Other differences increase a person s ability to process information