PSY: 335 Lecture 15 Notes
PSY: 335 Lecture 15 Notes PSY 335
Popular in Psychology of Childhood
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Social amp Emotional Development Attachment 0 An emotional bond with a specific person that is enduring across space and time o The observations of John Bowlby and others involved with institutionalized children led to an understanding of the importance of parentchild interactions in development 0 Many investigators now believe that children s early relationships with parents influence the nature of their interactions with others from infancy into adulthood as well as their feelings about their own worth CaregiverChild Attachment Relationship 0 Harry Harlow s experimental work with monkeys who were deprived of all early social interactions strongly supported the view that healthy social and emotional development is rooted in children s early social interactions with adults Attachment Theory 0 John Bowlby proposed attachment theory which is influenced by ethological theory and posits that children are biologically predisposed to develop attachments with caregivers as a means of increasing the chances of their own survival 0 Bowlby s Attachment Theory Secure base is Bowlby s term for an attachment figure s presence that provides an infant or toddler with a sense of security that makes it possible for the infant to explore the environment Mary Ainsworth Bowlby s student extended and tested his ideas Ainsworth s Research 0 Mary Ainsworth developed a laboratory procedure called quotThe Strange Situation to assess infants attachment to their primary caregivers o In this procedure the child is exposed to seven episodes including two separations and reunions with the caregiver and interactions with a stranger when alone and when the caregiver is in the room 0 Using this procedure Ainsworth identified three attachment categories Eaiende Eventa tenderer ntteelrrrrant datevier teeaeeed 1 Erteerimenter intredueee caregiver and infant tn the unfamiliar reern ehevre parent vrhere ta Here alt and ehmrve leahv tetra then leavee 2 Caregiver and ehild are alnne caregiver is tnld net tn initiate interaetien tart tn reeeendi tn Eaplaratien and tree at parent as a heart ae eepreeriate eeeere heee 3 Stranger entere and la aeated enietlv ter 1 minute then tallre ta caregiver ter 1 minute neaetinn te the etranger then triee tn interaet vrith the hang ter 1 minute d ridether leavea ehild alene with the etranger vrhe late tretrv aler hut ettare eenrfert it needed Seaeretmn dietreee and reeetien ta Segment ie ehnrtened it the hatrv treedmee tee dietreaeed strangers enrnterting 5 Caregiver ealle ta hahv tram eutaide deer entera the reami and games it the deer Reeetirrn ta reuninn with parent Stranger leavee Caregiver lets intent pav er may eerntert infant it dietreeeed 5 Parent leavee intent alene in the ream Segment is ended it intent is ten dietreeeed Seaaratirrn dietreee t Stranger enters ream greets infant and eeueee She sits er eemterte intent it the intent is ahilitv ta ta enethed he etranger irreeet Segment ta ended it the intent is very ueeet Earegiver ealle tram euterde the deer entere and greets intent and earreee Caregiver eite it Reaetinn ta reuninn infant ie net neeet but may previde eemtert it infant is die treeeed Caregiver alterve intent te return te elav ait intereeted Measurement of Attachment Security in Infancy o 1Secure attachment is a pattern of attachment in which an infant or child has a highquality relatively unambivalent relationship with his or her attachment figure 0 In the Strange Situation a securely attached infant for example may be upset when the caregiver leaves but may be happy to see the caregiver return recovering quickly from any distress 0 When children are securely attached they can use caregivers as a secure base for exploration 0 0 About twothirds of American middle class children are securely attached Attachment Categories 2 Insecureresistant or ambivalent attachment is a pattern in which infants or young children about 15 of American middle class children are clingy and stay close to their caregiver rather than explore the environment 0 In the Strange Situation insecureresistant infants tend to become very upset when the caregiver leaves them alone in the room and are not readily comforted by strangers 0 When the caregiver returns they are not easily comforted and both seek comfort and resist efforts by the caregiver to comfort them 3 lnsecureavoidant attachment is a type of insecure attachment in which infants or young children about 20 of infants from middleclass US families seem somewhat indifferent toward their caregiver and may even avoid the caregiver o In the Strange Situation these children seem indifferent toward their caregiver before the caregiver leaves the room and indifferent or avoidant when the caregiver returns 0 If these children become upset when left alone they are as easily comforted by a stranger as by the caregiver 4 Because a small percentage of children did not fit into these categories a fourth category disorganizeddisoriented attachment was subsequently identified 0 Infants in this category seem to have no consistent way of coping with the stress of the Strange Situation 0 Their behavior is often confused or even contradictory and they often appear dazed or disoriented Infant Attachment TABLE 101 Ciassifications of Infant Attachment CRlTERIA FOR ClLASSlFICA39lI39lON Labei Proximity with Caregiver Contact with Caregiver Secure High level Seeks proximity as High ievel Seeks contact especially base of expioration when distressed Avoidiaint Low level Avoids proximity with Low ievel Avoids caregiver upon caregiver and others return from abseinoe apparently indifferent ambivalent High level Maintains ciose liigi rilow level Seeks opt therr resists proximity distressed everr contact sometimes appearing angry before caregivers absence DisorganiaedlIDisoriented Inconsistent Confused may be inconsistent Cohtr39adictory behaviors near but not looking at caregiver moviing suddenly from caim to anger Source IE Walters 1963 Stranger Anxiety amp Separation Anxiety l 3900 8039 60 2039 Percentage of Children Who Cried Followmg Departure of Mother 5 10 15 20 25 30 315 Age months African Bushman Antigua Guatemala lsraeli kibibutz Temperament o The constitutionally based individual differences in emotional motor and attentional reactivity and selfregulation that demonstrate consistency across situations as well as relative stability over time 0 Differences in the various aspects of children s emotional reactivity that emerge early in life are labeled as dimensions of temperament Why Bother 0 As human beings we are interested in the classification of temperament so that we can 1 Predict behavior 2 Maximize effort and opportunity 3 Simplify decision making Hypocrite39s System of Temperament u UMEETAELE l MTI Milling Heueefli Moed Anlxliml Rigid Ember Pe55n115tI REEF WEEI unreachable Quiet M l a n a ll e l i E finf ii ft r E n t Ll i n Tutgoing Tentative Reg PDHS ive Eaeyg Evin g Litre ly39 Carefree Leade rehip EMQTIAL ETAELE 39 Eyeenelt H4 and Eyeenclt MW Pergenal39i r and Individual Differeneee Plenum Publishing 3915 Infant Temperament Stella Chess and Alexander Thomas 1977 conducted pioneering longitudinal research on infant temperament Three categories based on parents reports 0 Easy babies 40 adjusted readily to new experiences quickly established routines and generally were cheerful in mood and easy to calm o Difficult babies 10 were slow to adjust to new experiences likely to react negatively and intensely to stimuli and events and irregular in their bodily functions 0 Slowtowarmup babies 15 were somewhat difficult at first but became easier over time o The remaining infants did not fit into these categories Some dimensions of temperament showed stability over time and predicted how children were doing years later Alexander Thomas and Stella Chess 0 These researches working from a psychoanalytic basis base their concept of temperament on observable behavior Thomas and Chess Nine dimensions of Temperament 1 Activity Regularity or Rhythmicity Initial reaction or Approach Withdrawal Adaptability Intensity Mood Distractibility Persistence and attention span 9 N9 9199 N 9 Sensitivity Infant Temperament o In contrast to Thomas and Chess s approach many contemporary psychologists believe that it is important to 0 Assess positive and negative emotion as separate components of temperament o Differentiate among types of negative emotionality 0 Assess different types of regulatory capacity Recent research suggests that infant temperament is captured by six dimensions 0 Fearful distress irritable distress attention span and persistence activity level positive affect and rhythmicity Mary Rothbart Three dimensions of Temperament o SurgencyExtraversion 0 Activity impulsivity positive anticipation 0 Negative Affect 0 Fear frustration sadness discomfort anger o Effortful Control 0 inhibitory control perceptual sensitivity a low threshold for pleasure focusing attention Jerome Kagan o Kagan defines temperament based on physiological responses 0 Inhibited o Uninhibited o Unclassified Does Temperament Matter 0 certain are more adaptive than others
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