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PSY: 335 Lecture 16 Notes

by: Emily.nicole

PSY: 335 Lecture 16 Notes PSY 335

Marketplace > Syracuse University > Psychlogy > PSY 335 > PSY 335 Lecture 16 Notes
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Psychology of Childhood
W. Wood

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Class notes lecture 16.
Psychology of Childhood
W. Wood
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily.nicole on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 335 at Syracuse University taught by W. Wood in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 32 views. For similar materials see Psychology of Childhood in Psychlogy at Syracuse University.


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Date Created: 10/18/15
Concepts of the Self A comment on Intelligence The Bell Curve Controversy Herrnstein and Murray 0 Average 15point IQ difference between Whites and African Americans is due primarily to heredity rather than to environment Counter Argument 0 Many eXperts in the area of IQ were not convinced by The Bell Curve contention Today 0 IQ is viewed as product of compleX nature and nurture interaction SelfAwareness Selfawareness knowledge of oneself begins to grow at 12 months of age What evidence suggest that a child has selfawareness The Shift in SelfUnderstanding From the Physical to the Psychological Quest for selfunderstanding during middle childhood Shifting focus from eXternal characteristics to internal psychological traits Less simplistic and more compleX selfviews Personal and academic spheres of selfconcept Development of Self Identity Formation Change or Crisis According to Erikson search for identity inevitably leads some adolescents into substantial psychological turmoil as they encounter the adolescent identity crisis 1 The Developmental Process Erikson s Stages Erikson s View Adolescents may struggle in their search for identity Success in forging appropriate identity provides a foundation for future psychosocial development Societal Pressures and Reliance on Friends and Peers Identityversusidentityconfusion stage A stressful time for many adolescents increased reliance on peers is typical reliance on peers and relationship formation is important Limitations of Erikson s Theory Criticisms Male identity development is used as standard against which to compare female identity View is based on maleoriented concepts of individuality and competitiveness Marcia s Approach to Identity Development Updating Erikson Suggests that identity can be seen in terms of presence or absence of crisis or commitment Identity Race and Ethnicity The process of identity formation is not simple for anyone and may be doubly complicated for minority group members TABLE 11l1 Maroia s Four Categories of Adolescent Development Commitment Present Absent 2 PRESENT Identity achievement Moratorium g i enjoyed working at an advertising Il39m talking a job at my mom s 393 company the last two summers so I bookstore until I tigure out what i g plan to go iinto advertising really went to do Ea ABSENT Identityr toreollosure Identity diffusion a My dad says I39m good with kids and Frankly I have no idea what l m 5 would be a good teacher so I gness going to do that s what Il39ll do Source Based on Marcie IQBDJ SelfEsteem Developing a Positive or Negative View of Oneself Selfesteem develops in important ways during middle childhood As children progress into the middlechildhood years however their selfesteem is higher in some areas and lower in others Change and Stability in SelfEsteem Generally overall selfesteem increases during middle childhood with a brief decline around age of 12 Children with chronically low selfesteem may become enmeshed in a cycle of failure that grows difficult to break Parents can help break the cycle of failure by promoting their child s selfesteem Conclusions Growing up is hard to do for many people As Americans we have so many choices it can be confusing Most people make it eventually


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