CMN 140: Week 3 Lecture Notes
CMN 140: Week 3 Lecture Notes CMN 140
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Brittney Bui on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to CMN 140 at University of California - Davis taught by Laramie Taylor in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Intro Mass Comm in Communication Studies at University of California - Davis.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Lecture 5 Mon 1012 L Taylor CMN 140 A Brief History of Mediated Communication Cont Sound Recordings physical representation of sound waves in stable medium Foil cylinders wax cylinders shellac discs Mostly a novelty item until the 1920 s In the 1940 s it was an ubiquitous item vinyl The sound itself is making the exact symbol for itself Records were breakable until the 1940 s when it became more durable Moving Pictures Spinning discs Multiple cameras 1870 s Looks like it s alive but it s not illusion Innovations are happening Photograph Phonograph are very similar inventions Biggest Change l39l Film Technoloov Flexible and sensitive Film innovation Eastman amp Kodak for still photography Edison Labs used their innova on Fast cameras Films as novelties Shift to narratives in France and US The Great Train Robbery Films became important in American media 0 Color in 1930 s by Disney Signal in 1890 s not a mass medium and not dealing with high correspondence Manipulate and reciprocate deliberately People were working on the radio all over the world 0 Italy Britain to patent early radio Generate noise to receive noise Wireless telegraphy was what radio was called for years 0 Used for military mobile and shiptoshore Titanic Voice was integrated into the radio in the 1900 s but still was not a mass medium 0 Wireless telephone 0 People would start to broadcast to small groups of radio hobbyists o In 1915 there were enough hobbyists aka listeners Radio transitions from interpersonal I mass media communication 0 The first commercial stationearliest radio content was recorded music The guy who owned the station eventually sold it 0 Government influence esp around WWII 0 Common elements of radio broadcasting were similar to what you saw on TV 0 Further uncouples incontact communication no connector between people and media Television 0 A lot of radio broadcasters transitioned to TV 0 1920 s Experimentation 1930 s Tech competition 0 Government regulationintervention l had to get a license 0 1940 s Commercial Investment 0 1947 40000 TV sets in US most of these were in NYC 0 1949 Pres Inauguration 1950 s Widescale adoption 0 1954 12 of homes had TV s which was the most expensive item in home 0 1960 s Universal penetration in American home 0 1964 94 of homes had TV s 40000 almost everyone in the country 0 You could not access TV when you wanted to Recording Technoloqies 1940 s Electromagnetic Audiotape 1960 s Audiocassettes 1970 s Video Cassettes How did you record a bunch of people before electro magnetic tape existed Record What if you wanted to edit it Before it was very difficult to hear the same thing on the radio again But now with editing you can record rewind and playback Satellite amp Cable 1950 s amp 1960 s Limits on cable content 1970 s to 1990 s Greater reach more content available Internet 1960 s ARPANet Scientists used it computer to computer 0 Defense Department Initiative 1980 s Over 100 Internet hosts 0 Private companies were involved 1991 Network WWW Belonged to everybody not just scientists 0 WWW is NOT the internet it s used for exchanging and accessing information 0 GUI hyperlinks 2010 Widely adopted 0 Information everywhere 0 70 of Americans reported to having Internet access in their homes 0 90 of Americans used internet somewhere TV got the same reaction as when the radio was invented It was just a small adjustment The Internet was a HUGE transition Everyone had to adjust from having all access to all information everywhere Mobile Revolution 2000 s People didn t have iPhones back in the day and most phones didn t even have texting Today almost everyone has a smartphone Lecture 6 Wed 1014 L Taylor CMN 140 Media Industries To consider 0 Ownership 0 Production 0 Distribution Ownership Structure 0 Independent an artist entrepreneur or family 0 Mostly production Tends to determine the mandate to guide the rest of their decisions 0 Ex Making YouTube videos 0 Nonprofit or government 0 Fulfills a specified purposegoal o Governmentowned by law 0 Ex NPR PRI CBCTV Corporate Ownership 0 Legal entity collectively owned 0 Board of directors mandated to seek shareholder interest 0 Increase in stock prices Increase in revenue 0 Care about making Production General Pattern Motivemandate usually profit 0 Content is secured to turn into 1 Funded Planning Organizing Executing making movie singing a song Revisionediting Distribution 050quot39gt933 Production Funding Model Fee for serviceproduct Pay for content 0 Movies theater buying CD s Subsc p on Pay for a body of content for a fixed time 0 Ex Netflix magazine Government Supported Government funds Venezuela state television BBC DonationsPublic Support Voluntary payment not tied to consumption Public radioTV Community newspapers some music Advertising Supported Funded by entities who pay for audience attention Most TV most Web pages Examples Local News Advertising is sold Producers outline the nature of the content sports goes here weather goes there Assignments and initiative reporters are making their own stories Purchased content amp PR people acquiring this content Producers select content and make changes some stories are discarded many stories are cut shorter than the length reporter was promised it to be Situation Comedy 1 Someone has an idea 2 Producer is procured work w another producer do it yourself another company 3 Idea is pitched to executives 4 Funding has been secured Producer then hires a writerwriting team to write the script 6 figures 5 Script pitched who should act in this movie and who should direct it 6 Pilot produced may or may not be the script that was written change a little bit audience usually never sees the pilot 7 Pilot is used to pitch more episodes if the producers agree they proceed to make a limited number of episodes to evaluate the success and decide whether or not to continue the investment Music 1 Tremendously varied sometimes like a sitcom sometimes spontaneous sometimes personal people write songs to sell to producers Distribution Immenser varied Different models for different industries 0 Intellectual property superlow marginal cost the cost of producing the next one o Marginal costs can be low if you carefully distribute Television Broadcast stations o If you own it you can broadcast whatever you want within the law 0 Get content from NETWORKS I organizations that provide content to local stations giving rights to advertise 0 Station Network 0 Stations are like a franchise If it s part of a wellknown network the station is likely to do well 0 Or can be from SYNDICATORS I independent distributors of content alternativecomplementary independent of networks functions in between content owners and broadcast stations 0 Cable amp Satellite Providers Added complexity Functions like a broadcast station Delivers content directly to you Fill channels with networks Gets entire channels of content at one time Pay on a perhousehold basis 3 to 25 cents for basic channels 3 to 4 for ondemand channels must carry at least 3 local stations subscriber fees for local revenue 0 000000 Movies Distributors between producers and theaters 0 Licensing agreement w production company 0 Common Lease for the next 6 months it s going to be our movie But we can t alter it dramatically o Distributing company gets a check 0 Producing amp distributing companies share profit 0 Screen for theaters Contract for lease 0 Theaters engage w distribution company 0 Fixed of screens of weeks 0 Theater gets higher percentages in later weeks 0 Ex Seeing Star Wars on opening week Distributing Company gets 90 of ticket price profit 0 Ex 1 theaters Theater gets 90 of ticket price profit 0 Studios own distributors 0 Keep options open for expansion to make Ancillarv Ridhts secondary ways that movies make 0 Ex DVD sales action figures lunch boxes 0 Very limited in lease agreement 0 Independent movies do not make a lot of money because they aren t a part of a wellknown production company and therefore people don t hear about these movies Music Limitless Diversitv o Promoters represent recording labels license to radio stations internet radio DJs stores Eretailers as sometimes distributors Ex iTunes independent music gets promoted Artist distributed and promoted 0 Pay for stations to play 0 Small but very dedicated followers 0 Now 10000 very dedicated followers means an artist is good enough to make a living Shiftind Models 0 Online distribution of TV content are changing o Often adsupported ondemand subscription lTunes 0 Producer to iTunes to consumer Apple people say that the future of TV appsD o DTC Distribution 0 Ex ABC CBS and FOX own Hulu Some episodes of shows are only available to watch on their own websites which is a problem because it decreases viewers
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