Chapter 10 Language
Chapter 10 Language PSY 151
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Patrece Savino on Wednesday March 23, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 151 at Wake Forest University taught by Dr. Schrillo in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 53 views. For similar materials see Intro to Psychology in Psychlogy at Wake Forest University.
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Date Created: 03/23/16
Language 0 What is human spoken language 0 Complex set of many different kinds of knowledge 0 How is it unique from other forms of animal communication 0 Generativity our ability to produce and comprehend utterances that we have never heard before Ex recombining words in different sentences that we ve never heard before and still be able to comprehend them 0 Displacement we can communicate about things that are not in the here and now immediate l we can talk about the past and distant future etc o Arbitrary relationship between symbols and their referents Words don t need to sound like or look like the things that they refer to o A Phonology rules about sounds of a language Plitos glitos tpites lt that word doesn t have a normal English language sound Phonemes basic unit of phonology kind of like a letter smallest unit of change in sound in which the change in it changes the perceived meaning Vary in matter of articulation Place of articulation Voicing Ex de do da phoneme is the d and multiple sound waves map onto the same phoneme de do da 0 Ex Ladder latter same sound wave Phoneme perception mysteries not a unique 1 1 Mapping between speech signal and perceived sound 0 B Semantics knowledge about meaning of words Morpheme basic unit 0 Words and things like ed ing that change the meaning of the word 0 C Syntax rules for combining words You can recognize a sentence in a set of words 0 D Pragmatics rules for describing functions of language and its use in various situations Needed to understand sarcasm irony indirect utterances Functions of language assertions asking questions etc Sarcasm irony indirect utterances I you need context in the situation to understand why they re using this a It sure is noisy in here Quiet down o Is language unique to humans 0 Can we teach other animals to use human language Chimpanzee s can t learn to speak because they don t have the vocal apparatus to do it but are there other ways to teachcommunicate through human language o Washoe female chimpanzee was the first non human to learn to communicate with human sign language Vocabulary of a few hundred signs Showed generativity when she went to a pond saw a swan and combined the signs for water and bird 0 Question of whether or not she was individually naming the water and the bird separately Taught her baby sign language 0 Koko female gorilla that learned a number of hand signs from a modified version of human sign language Francine Patterson worked with Koko Gorilla language department in brain more similar to human s than chimpanzee s are Claims for Koko similar to generativity that Washoe showed but came up with combinations for a cigarette lighter More really extreme claims for Koko l consensus was that Koko was a sham 0 Current work with bonobos httpwwwnprorgtemplate torystorympg storyld5503685 Suggestion that they have achieved level of preschooler Was teaching to communicate by using a keyboard system by Sue Romba Greater advances from being taught at a young age initially by accident 0 Teaching Kanzi s mother he was just hanging around but when mother was taken away Kanzi used keyboard to communicate food affection find lost mother 0 The baby was communicating much more successfully than the mother did I CRITICAL PERIOD FOR LANGUAGE ACQUISITION earlier in life 0 Where does language come from o Nativist vs learned accounts Are you born with it Nativist Hearing parents speak positive reinforcements etc Learned The forbidden experimenf what would language be like if kids were never exposed to it Raise 2 kids in isolation with no language 0 Things to consider that may point to nativist aspects 1 Children hear utterances but learn rules I runned Mom and Dad didn t say I runned 2 Each child is exposed to a different corpus but learns the same rules 3 All children acquire language Smart kids less smart kids kids with mental handicaps 4 Regularities found in learning very different languages o Tests of naturenurture question pointing to that language is biology Feral children raised by wild animals and come back to civilization what kind of language skills do they have Children without language model Deaf children of hearing parents who s parents do not want them to learn sign language 0 Kids tend to begin inventing their own signs at times of one word speech two word speech etc Critical period evidence 0 Acquiring first language 0 Jeannie raised by mentally ill parents and she was never spoken to for 12 years and locked in a room 0 Learned simple language but wasn t able to master complex forms of grammar because she was outside of the critical period language is not necessarily all learned 0 Language Acquisition detailed o Phonology Perception innate Categorical perception of speech sounds in very young infants b vs p buh and puh Differ in voice onset time vibration of vocal cords 0 40 to 25 ms b 0 30 to 60 ms p Do babies perceive that difference or do they need to learn it habituate 0 Evidence for innateness Habituate babies to b 20 ms Voice Onset Time Then present equal magnitude change to the p b 0 ms gmagnitude and category change p 40ms Infants dishabituate to p but not b I they don t react to the change in b so they habituate to it o Semantics The first systematic meaningful communication involves gestures that serve pragmatic functions 0 Ex a baby lifting arms to be picked up Protolanguage gestural precursors of first real words serve pragmatic functions pointing open arm wave and grasping These are then idiosyncratically coordinated with sounds First real words mapped onto this foundation First real words typically 12 mos old has 3 word vocabulary Grows fast 10 new words per day by 2 years Meaning of first words Overextension calling all animals dogs because they know the word dog Underextension mastering what words apply to what One word speech stage then two word speech stagethen the next issue is syntax acquisition D
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