Week 3 Notes
Week 3 Notes ANTHRO 9
Popular in Culture and Society
Popular in anthropology, evolution, sphr
This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lonnie Wong on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to ANTHRO 9 at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Throop in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 19 views. For similar materials see Culture and Society in anthropology, evolution, sphr at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
10132015Lecture 5 oc Social Darwinism difference understood in biological terms quotracequot not quotculturequot that defines difference varying technological and social quotcomplexityquot how evolved the people were W N G I I I understood in biological terms existence of more or less quotevolvedquot people quotprogressivismquot quotprimitive mentalityquot vs quotcivilized mindsquot spears vs guns differences tied to essentialized quotracialquot characteristics social Darwinism forms the background for why culture emerged culture emerged as a critique of social Darwinism oc Essentialism view that some properties of objects are essential to them mental complexity lt gt social complexity oc Social Darwinism ideas fueled eugenetics movement 19th century scientific racism Eugene cs o attempt to improve a population through controlled breeding to increase the occurrence of desirable heritable characteristics 0 most civilized breed with other most civilized o primitive should be left to die 0 similar to what is occurring today with people using technology genomes and birthing to gain the best babieshigh intelligence and less chance for disease I l DOES NOT REFLECT DARWIN39S OWN IDEAS quotCiVi39izationquot 0C Edward B Tay r1832391917 forefathers of early anthropological work oc Lewis Henry Morgan 18181881 quotunileal evolutionquot quotBarbariansquot evolution of society huntergatherers gt high culture categorize groups in this list inspired by social Darwinism gt g oc there are 39brimitivequot culture oc Franz Boas 18581942 quotSavageryquot Social Darwinism his background into which Boas came into as an anthropologist Social Darwinism is fundamentally bad science prejudice From culture high culture to cultures plural not biological Jewish German citizen forms of bigotry experienced critique of Spencer and Social Darwinism his entire career first study of immigrants in NYC 0 at the time a study was performed on the immigrants and the results everything about the immigrants were quotinferiorquot head size o Boas looked at the second generation and everything was evened out first generation was the result of social and economic influence at the time studies were performed on quotprimitivequot and quotcivilizedquot scientists would take items out of context and place them in some display showing the quotprimitivenessquot of others Boas you cannot take things out of context to compare 0 the entire contextculture is needed 0 subjective culture diffuse elements of complex origin that are integrated in the context of a particular community 0 cultures from other cultures can be integrated into own culture ideas circulate quotdiffusionquot and are not tied to socalled quotracialquot differences Psychic Unity of Human kind predates Boas from his teacher all humans share a common underlying psychological structure irrespective of social and culture upbringing no difference between quotprimitivequot and quotcivilizedquot minds Edward Burnett Taylor 18321917unilea anthropologist reads anthropology papers not formally trained quotCulture is that complex whole which includes knowledge beliefs arts morals law customs and any other capabilities and habits acquired by man as a member of societyquot 1817 still see traces of Spencer check previous class notes founder of Social Darwinism but meaning close to Boas Cultural Difference differences between human communities are culturally and not biologically patterned Culture learned embodied symbolic arbitrary relationship to properties a variously shared system of largely examined ideas meanings symbols habits materials and practices that help to orient and coordinate social action Critiques of Culture not a naturallyterritorially bounded object of study Gupta and Ferguson kind of groups like race essentialist homogenized ahistorical overly rigid imposed Wolf and Said Colonial legacies justifying inequality and domination based on politics of quotothernessquot AbuLugbod product of ethnographic modes of representation Clifford and Marcus quotTime and the otherquot Johannes Fabian denial of coevalness o coeval o of the same time antiquity duration all contemporary people are coeval Jared Diamond quotlooking into the past through a windowquot Wrong because those people are going through the same things we are for example global change oc What does quotculturequot overlook cultural hybridity positorial identities translocal connections and flow contempora reity and coevalness singularity uniqueness and complexity of actual life 10152015Lecture 6 0c The problem with 39race39 humans have no biologically discrete race ie genetically defined and isolated species subdivision 39race39 is no derived from scientific classification based upon common genes DNA sequences 995 identical for all humans remaining 05 variation9395 of this 05 is within groups coding individual differences 0025 between group variations I only 35 of SNP are 39functional39 most variations individual and between group variations are due to single nucleotide polymorphism SNP oc What is race then if not biological cultural category derived from contrasts perceived and perpetuated in particular societies despite genetic complexities and multiple possible phenotypic traits only a few traits are linked to such categories eg skin color I Humans are biological beings every single phenotype is coded genetically race matters vs moving beyond race I genetic coding of human genome can lead to individualized healthcare I health outcomesinequalitiesdisparities health disparities and heath advocacy quotequalizing life chancesquot GOOD 0 Paul Farmer Partner to the poor Chromo ome 0 AIDS Ebola treatmentresistant strains of tuberculosis don39t just happen It happens because of lack of medical treatment 0 Problems 0 simplistic biological renderings of differences 0 little attention to environmental impacts on gene expression I NOT HELPFUL Gene 1 oc FULLWILEY39S ARTICLE 1 1 shift race gt susceptibility to disease and pharmaceutical intervention shift from impersonal allelic frequency distribution to differences in genetic sequences SNP sorted by unexamined racial categories gt PROBLEM Where do the scientists get their categories from the people themselves who well may not know Fullwiley39s point race as an unexamined category I organization of samples SOPHIE into received racial categories for clinical trials I sorting storing and coding DNA samples according to these categories taken at face values I examining variance within the preselected sample tied to variations in disease prevalence I use of variance to speak of genetic markers of race rare proteinattending variants SNP use of variance to speak of genetic markers of race rare protein attending variants SNP 2 1 o scientists are using this 21 to define race Sometimes this one percent is one person one allele and that defines the race that was predefined What do researchers mean by race I Why are scientists unable to provide a definition of the constructs hat they use in their everyday practice and reasoning Max Weber 18641920 quoted by Fullwiley I Forms of rationality technopragmatic valueladen affectbased traditional quotirrationality of rationalityquot Pierre Bourdieu 19302002 difficult to come up with an answer orjustification when you are so embedded within Martin Heidegger 18891976 oc Race I background and breakdown I background values bias assumptions etc I breakdown when something goes wrong we reflect I this is what happens when someone asks a question like quotwhat is racequot quotNew World Latino Genetic Differencequot I asthma rates I why is Puerto Ricans more susceptible to asthma compared to Mexican and MexicanAmerican I Franz Boas during his first study the second generations showed none of the signs the first generation had due to the fact they didn39t go through the same socioeconomical conditions cultural category that stems from the belief that affiliation with a particular ethnic group has a biological basis eg distinctively 39shared blood39 cultural category that has real material physical emotional economic and political effects on people an Hacking 1936 I quotdynamic nominalismquot 0 ideas about how we understand the world and how we react to it This isn39t static It is always changingfeedback loops 0 Garcia intersubjective experiences and interact with people and it changes how you see reality culture is part of the very fabric of our existence Ethnicity identification with a group sharing certain beliefs values habits communicative practices customs and norms due to a common background exclusion from other groups because of this affiliation I doesn39t necessarily mean one can39t identify with two groups I TA identifies with ItalianSwedish Not Canadian this kind of exclusion I Prof identifies with Canadian Not American ALL IMAGES FROM GOOGLE IMAGES SEARCH quotSINGLE NUCLEOTIDE POLYMORPHISMquot SEARCH quotMOLECULARIZATION OF RACEquot
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