Bronze Age Greece, Homer, Archaic Greece
Bronze Age Greece, Homer, Archaic Greece History 1A
Popular in Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sarah Doberneck on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to History 1A at University of California - Los Angeles taught by Dr. Phillips in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 26 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Western Civilization: Ancient Civilizations, Prehistory to circa A.D. 843 in History at University of California - Los Angeles.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
101415 Greece and the Bronze Age Minoans from Crete and the Mycenaean from the Greek peninsula The oldest Neolithic era civilization we found on Crete dates back to 6100 BC Around 2000 immigrants began moving to the island of Crete as well as those surrounding it From 2000 to 400 the Minoans reigned over this area The rise of Minoan civilization occurred between 2000 and 1600 Significant trade contact was made to the north and the west Multiple palaces were built and a road system was built that linked the various palaces Religious shrines were developed mostly on mountains and caves Cultural contact was established with middle kingdom Egypt who were much more advanced than the Minoans Linear A is the name for the Minoan form of writing It remains undeciphered today but we do know that it was not used to form the Greek language The high point of Minoan civilization lasted for a century and a half from 16001450 BC The capitol was securely established at Knossos We know what people wore what they liked to do what sports they participated in how they labored etc through Minoan art The Minoans had a type of sport that we call bulljumping where they would try do some sort of gymnastics thing to jump over a charging bull Inspired Greek myths EX King Minos and his wife Pasiphae Poseidon gave Minos a beautiful bull but Minos didn t sacrifice it to Poseidon like he should ve So Poseidon gets revenge by having Pasiphae become attracted to the bull She gets an anatomically correct cow suit that then fools the bull into thinking shes a cow They mate creating the Minotaur half man half bull Minos can t kill the Minotaur because it is diving intervention The Minotaur liked to eat people so he is stuck in the labyrinth and people are sent in there to be sacrificed to the monster Then the Greek hero Theseus kills the Minotaur Kernels of truth The labyrinth can be linked to the Palace of Minos at the capitol Knossos which is quite large and confusing It is also known that the bull was an important animal to the Minoans At the capital palace there is a lot of artwork and archeological elements that are related to the bull Minoan Religion Trade We cam conjecture about Minoan religion from archeological evidence but since we can t decipher the language we can t know for sure The main deity was a woman goddess There are many depictions of her with a bull holding 2 snakes with a dove on her hear or with a young boy who is presumed to be a sort of male divinity Scholars call her the snake goddess We don t really know what this goddess did We can assume she is a sort of fertility figure because of how she is depicted with animals and because a lot of female gods of the ancient world were associated with fertility The most important city during this entire time period was Knossos There are only a handful of rulers names recorded the majority named Minos Always said to be the son of Zeus It is likely that Minos was more of a title like Pharaoh than an actual name 0 Minoan Fallasocricy meaning ruler of the sea 0 They established a navy that allowed them to become a strong country economically 0 We have found Minoan trade goods throughout the region including Egypt 0 This provided outside cultural connection Fall of Minoans 0 They fell due to outside invasions from the mainland Mycenaean people 0 We know that around 1450 every palace other than Knossos is completely destroyed 0 Although Knossos survived we have found Mycenaean pottery literature and weaponry that is dated from 1450 to about 1375 The Mycenaeans probably used Knossos as their base of operations while they took over the rest of Crete PreGreek We know that the people who inhabited the island of Crete and the Greek mainland didn t speak any form of the Greek language or any other IndoEuropean language They may or may not have spoken Linear A but we don t know for certain Certain consonant clusters such as nt and ss are present in names for places that were adopted by the Greeks showing that the original inhabitants had a unique language An example is Thalassa which is the name for the sea It has survived all the way until Modern Greek We know that the original people primarily worshiped a fertility goddess This is known because we have found depictions of a woman with exaggerated sexual features that is similar to fertility goddesses of other areas Diews the sky god eventually becomes Zeus Jupiter and Tiw The IndoEuropean speaking invaders had a male sky god at the top were land based agricultural society Around 1600 or so the Greek speakers on the mainland are able to begin to develop their civilization quickly thanks to the Minoans They are eventually called the Mycenaeans 0 The Mycenaean s were generally overshadowed until 1400 because they were less advanced than the Greece 0 Mycenean culture spreads palace states are developed 0 Palace bureaucracy begins which is similar to the Minoans 10162015 Mycenae 0 Seen as Greek people We call these people the Mycenaens because of the castle in Mycenae Build giant walls around their palaces that were 20 feet thick It was unnecessary to have them that thick because no one had weaponry strong enough to penetrate this It was probably done to send a message to the people that they shouldn t try to revel 0 Two castles Mycenae and Tiryns Mycenae was the main castle Tiryns was a bit smaller 0 Elaborate road network connecting the cities 0 Religion 0 Spoke an Indo European language an early ancestral form of the Greek Language 0 Worshiped above all others a male God of the sky 0 Thanks to Linear B tablets we know that they worshiped basically all of the Greek divinities 0 They mention Zeus Hera Poseidon Hermes Artemis Apollo etc 0 Redistributive economy Palace Economy 0 Strong element of oversea trade dominant trading people in the area 0 Although they could feed themselves they had to import a lot of items to sustain themselves 0 Foreign trade throughout the Mediterranean in Egypt Israel Palestine 0 Fine Mycenaean lottery where Minoan pottery used to be showed that Mycenaeans took over previously Minoan controlled trade routes Foreign Relations Hittites 0 Empire in Southeast Asia minor 0 We have writings from them that mention a people called quotAhhij awa quot 0 We are almost certain these were the Mycenaean Greeks O Greeks were known as Achaioi which turns into Ahhij awa 0 However we don39t know which Greeks or where they came from 0 Could be Mycenaean itself because of its power or an island Mycenaean colony because they were close from the Hittites 0 We have records of hittites leaders contacting the Mycenaeans in a non aggressive way They seemed to get along Egyptians 0 Mycenaean Greeks were among the people of the sea in at least one but maybe both of the attempted invasions of Egypt by the people of the sea 0 In one of the Egyptian inscriptions about a battle it is noted that KWS were there and if you plug in the right vowels which Egyptian didn t use and you get achaioi which were the Greeks 0 There are also people referred to as DN which can be equated to Danoi which is another name for the Greeks o The Mycenaean Greeks tried to invade Egypt and failed leading to hostile relations between the two Trojan War 0 The Iliad is a book by Homer the action takes place over the ten year Trojan war 0 Summary Agamemnon King of Mycenae and Menelaus king of Sparta are brothers Menelaus wife Helen was kidnapped by Paris who was the son of a Trojan King Agamemnon and Menelaus work together and go on a journey to save Helen It leads to a war but they are able to defeat the Trojans and save the wife 0 It was thought of complete myth with no basis of historical fact until the city of Troy was uncovered 0 Since it was a popular settlement site they actually found multiple Troy39s stacked up 0 The Troy associated with the Trojan war is Troy 7a 0 We know this was the one because it shows signs of destruction by fire dating to the Trojan was which would ve been at about 1200 BC 0 We have Hittite documents saying that the Mycenaean people were being a nuisance in the Mediterranean region 0 Saying the Trojan war really did happen isn39t the same as saying Homers Iliad is an accurate description of the Trojan war 0 The Greeks weren39t literate at the time of the war 0 So it was passed down orally for about 400 years until it was written down by Homer around 800 BC 0 No one believes that Helen was really kidnapped that Agamemnon was a real person or that the war lasted 10 years 0 The Trojan war was the last notable event for the Mycenaeans and their culture 0 Within the next century their culture is obliterated 0 A people from the north called the Dorians speak Greek but a different dialect came through destroy and conquered the land 0 The Dorians destroyed every single palace However they skip Attica Athens because it39s too far out of the way so that Mycenaean palace remained Dark Ages o The Dorian invasions ended up starting the dark ages 0 Literacy was lost because Linear B was lost Linear B wasn39t wide spread and was only used for note taking by the upper class who were probably all killed 0 Standard of living drops populations drop and become less centralized 0 There are no more palace states small villages are very common 0 About 1050 mainland Greece transitioned from bronze to iron The Archaic Period 0 Late 9th to early 8th century 0 End of dark ages led by archaic period 0 Ended thanks to the polis and the Greek alphabet O Polis also known as a city state Similar to city states we39ve seen in places like Mesopotamia Usually had an urban center surrounded by the farmland where most people lived and worked About 75 of people were farmers Typically came about when people of different villages would come together and create a more permanent and organized settlement 0 Literacy returns to Greek due to trade and contact with the Phoenicians With the rise of the polis trade resumed that had been halted during the dark ages The Greek adopt the Phoenician alphabet but altered it a little by adding vowels Literature 0 Unlike Linear B the new Greek alphabet is used for everything not just record keeping 0 One of the first written things we have is the Iliad written about 750 BC It is inevitable that after 400 years of telling the story orally it gets added to and made more dramatic than it truly was 0 Odyssey written about 725 BC About Oedipus returning to his home in Ithaca after the Trojan war 0 Using Homer as a historical source is highly contested 0 The Homeric Question scholars question whether or not Homer actually existed l Doubted because the poems are written in is a Greek dialect that no one ever spoke It s actually a mixture of many different dialects 0 After the war people began telling the stories orally When literacy was restored Homer who was probably the lead story teller at the time wrote down the poems 1 The Homeric poems are written in a meter used by the Greeks for the purpose of writing epic poetry 2 This meter dactylic hexameter provides a type of rhythm that is only used for Epic story telling
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