Chapter 3 Periodic Table
Chapter 3 Periodic Table Chemistry 112
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nadia Shibly on Sunday October 18, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Chemistry 112 at University of Oregon taught by Mark Lonergan in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Principles of Chemistry I in Chemistry at University of Oregon.
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Date Created: 10/18/15
Chemistry 111 Notes Chapter 3 Section 34 The Periodic Table 10 elements have been known since the beginning of history antimony Sb carbon C Copper Cu gold Au Iron Fe Lead Pb Mercury Hg Silver Ag Sulfur S and Tin As Observation of Several Triads or group of 3 elements that have similar chemical and physical properties Ex Lithium Sodium and PotassiumD Silvery metals react with water Chlorine Bromine and Iodine Colored nonmetals Medelev created and organized the elements into the rst version of the periodic table 7 Horizontal rows which are called periods and 18 vertical columns called groups The elements in a given group have similar chemical properties Different periodsrows contain different numbers of elements 1St period two elements 2nOI and third have 8 elements 4th and 5th have 18 elements the 6th have 32 elements and the 7th contains 31 elements The two large groups on the far left and the 6th on the far right the main group elements labeled 1A through 8A The 10 small groups in the middle transition elements lBBB The inner transition metal elements bottom of the table Section 35 Some Characteristics of Different Groups 0 The elements in a given group of the table are shown with similarities chemical and physically 1A Alkaline Metals Li Na K etc are shiny soft metals with low melting points and reacts with water 0 2A Alkaline Earth Metals BeMgCa Silvery metals less reactive with water 0 7A Halogens FCBr Colorful Corrosive non metal unnatural in the environment 0 8A Noble Gases He Ne Ar colorless no chemical reactivity don39t combine with other elements H N Ar while Kr and Xe do Metals the largest group of elements left side 0 Non Metas the right side Metaloids 7 elements Sections 38 Electron Con gurations and the Periodic Table 0 The periodic table can be divided into 4 regions blocks due to electron con gurations and subshells taken up by the subshell that was lled last 0 Main group 1A and 2A elements on the left side of the table including Helium He these are called s block elements 0 The main group 3A8A on the right side except He are the P block elemtns since the p subshell was lled last 0 The middle of the table are the transition metals which are the d block elements The inner trans metals are at the bottom of the table which are the f block elements The Valence shell is the electrons found in the largest shell number like Group 1 A all have one valence electron since it corresponds to the 1 in 1A Valence electrons are the most loosely held electrons helps determine an elements property Valence Electrons go up to 8 if an element or an atom has 8 valence electrons it is said to have a valence con guration of a Noble Gas Unless it it Helium which has 2 to ll up its shell Dot structures only care about the main group elements Electrons are represented as dots Up to 2 dots are drawn on each side of the chemical symbol Electrons are drawn singly one dot before pairing with 2 on each side Ion Formation and Ionic Bonds An in nite number of chemical compounds can be built from atoms What holds the atoms together Bonds Two Types Ionic Bond and Covalent Bonds In an ionic bond electrons are transferred to make a net charge positive or negative In a covalent Bond electrons are being shared What are Ions Neutral ions equal number of positive and negatively charged electrons Add or remove electrons Protons and electrons no longer balance The resulting charged particles are called ions Two types Positively charged atoms that has less electrons that protons these are called cat atoms Representing the charge on an Anion lons have multiple positive or negative charges indicated with a superscript after the chemical symbol Sodium Chloride is an example of a classic ionic compound since it is a non metal reacting with a metal How do you make an ionic compound Cant just combine a sodium ion with a chloride ion You have to chemically react a metal and a nonmetal Octet Rule There is a special stability to atoms or ions with lled shells The least chem Reactive most inert elements are noble gases Elements will tend to react in a way that reacts in them having a lled shell like a noble gas