Motion Along a Straight Line: Intro
Motion Along a Straight Line: Intro Physics 125
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nora Salmon on Thursday January 8, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Physics 125 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa taught by Prof. Andreas Piepke in Fall2015. Since its upload, it has received 254 views. For similar materials see Physics 1 w/Calculus in Physics 2 at University of Alabama - Tuscaloosa.
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Date Created: 01/08/15
2125 Motion Along a Straight Line 21 What is physics 0 Many principles many applications 0 In this chapter studying the motion of objects as they travel along a single axis onedimensional motion 22 Motion 0 The classification and comparison of motions is called kinematics I Motion in one dimension is restricted in three ways It is along a straight line only whether the line is up down or diagonal does not matter but it must be straight Forces cause motion The moving object is either a particle a pointlike object such as an electron or an object that moves like a particle o This means that all the components of the object move the exact same direction and at the same rate ie a block of wood 23 Position and Displacement 0 An object s position is always described relative to a reference point I Often this is the origin or zero point of an axis I Two directions positive and negative 0 A change in an object s position is called displacement or Ax I Ax xfmal ximtlal where final and initial refer to the object s final and initial positions I Displacement is the shortest straightline distance between Xinitial and Xfinal it is NOT a measurement of the actual distance covered by the object The absolute value of a displacement value is its magnitude 0 Displacement is a vector quantity which is a quantity that has both magnitude and direction 24 Average Velocity and Average Speed 0 A common way to describe an obj ect s position is with a positiontime graph I Position is on the yaxis vertical and time is on the xaxis horizontal I Plotting points on a positiontime graph creates a line the slope of that line is the average velocity of the particle or object It is a ratio of displacement that occurs during a certain time interval Ax xz xl vavg At E 0 An obj ect s average speed savg is a different quantity than average velocity 2125 Motion Along a Straight Line I While average velocity involves an object s displacement average speed involves the total distance an object covers independent of direction total distance I Savg At I Because average speed neglects direction it is NOT a vector quantity 25 Instantaneous Velocity and Speed 0 The phrase how fastquot most commonly refers to how fast at a given instantquot I This is called instantaneous velocity v Instantaneous velocity is the limit of a particle s average velocity as the time interval measured approaches zero Ax O U llmAt0 E o In other words the instantaneous velocity of a particle or object is the derivative of an object s change in position with respect to time I It is the rate at which an object s position is changing at any specified instant o Instantaneous speed is the magnitude of velocity it is a measurement of how fast something is travelling while neglecting in which direction the particle is travelling
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