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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Psyc3200 at Tulane University taught by Sarah Grey in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see Educational psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 10/19/15
Chapter 9 behaviorist views of learning 10122015 Vocab Behaviorism theoretical perspective in which learning and behavior are descried and explained in terms of stimulus response relationships Stimulus speci c object or event that in uences an individuals learning or behavior Response speci c behavior that an individual exhibits Conditioning term commonly used by behaviorists for LEARNING typically involves speci c environmental events leading to the acquisition of speci c responses Contiguity occurrence of two or more events at approximately the same time Classical conditioning form of learning in which a new involuntary response is acquired as a result of two stimuli being presented close together in time Unconditioned stimulus stimulus that elicits a particular response without prior learning Unconditioned response response that is elicited by a particular stimulus without prior learning Neutral stimulus stimulus that does not elicit any particular response Conditioned stimulus stimulus that beings to elicit a particular response through classical conditioning Conditioned response response that begins to be elicited by a particular stimulus through classical conditioning Generalization phenomenon in which a person learns a response to a particular stimulus and then makes the same response to a similar stimulus Extinction gradual disappearance of an acquired response in CC result from repeated presentation of a conditioned stimulus in the absence of the unconditioned stimulus Instrumental conditioning learning process in which a response either increases or decreases as a result of being followed by either a reinforcement or punishment Reinforcers consequence that increase the frequency of the response it follows Punishment consequence that decreases the frequency of the response t follows Operant conditioning learning process in which a response increases as a result of being followed by reinforcement is one form of instrumental conditioning Contingency situation in which one event happens only after another event has already occurred one event is contingent on the other occurrence Primary reinforcers consequence that satis es a biological built in need Secondary reinforcers consequence that becomes reinforcing over time through its association with another reinforcers Positive reinforcement consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the presentation of a stimulus Premack principle phenomenon in which learners do lesspreferred activities in order to engage in morepreferred activities Extrinsic reinforcers reinforcers that comes from the outside environment rather than from within the learner Intrinsic reinforcers reinforcer that is provided by the learner or inherent in the task being performed Negative reinforcement consequence that brings about the increase of a behavior through the removal of a stimulus Delay of grati cation ability to forego small immediate reinforcers in order to obtain larger ones later on Presentation punishment punishment involving presentation of a new stimulus presumable one a learner nds unpleasant Removal punishment punishment involving removal of an existing stimulus presumably one a learners doesn t want to lose Response cost lose either of a previously earned reinforces or of an opportunity to obtain a reinforcer Logical consequence unpleasant consequence that follows naturally or logically from a students misbehavior Positivepractice overcorrection consequence of a poorly performed response in which a learner must repeat the response correctly and appropriately perhaps in an exaggerated manner Time out consequence for misbehavior in which a learners is placed in a quiet boring situation with no opportunity for reinforcement or social interaction In school suspension consequence for misbehavior in which a student is placed in a quiet boring room within the school building typically to do school work under close adult supervision Psychological punishment consequences that seriously threatens self esteem and general psychological wellbeing Terminal behavior form and frequency of a desired response that a teacher hopes to foster through reinforcement Token economy technique in which desired behaviors are reinforced by small insigni cant items that learners can use to purchase a variety of other more desirable reinforcers Contingency contract formal agreement between a teacher and a student that identi es behaviors the student will exhibit and the reinforcers that will follow Group contingency situation in which everyone in a group must make a particular response before reinforcement occurs Baseline frequency of a response before it is intentionally and systematically reinforced Continuous Reinforcement reinforcement of a response every time it occurs Extinction in instrumental conditioning gradual disappearance of an acquired response as a result of repeated lack of reinforcement Intermittent reinforcement reinforcement of a response only occasionally with some occurrence of the response not being reinforced Shaping process of reinforcing successively closer and closer approximations to a desired terminal behavior Antecedent stimulus stimulus that in uences the probability that a particular response will follow Antecedent response response that in uences the probability that a certain other response will follow Cueing use of a verbal or nonverbal signal to indicate that a certain behavior is desired or that a certain behavior should stop Setting event complex environmental condition that is likely to evoke certain voluntary behaviors Generalization in instrumental conditioning phenomena in which a person makes a voluntary response to a stimulus that is similar to one preciously associated with a response reinforcement contingency Discrimination phenomenon in which a students learns that a response is reinforced in the presence of one stimulus but not in the presence of another similar stimulus Behavioral momentum increased tendency for learners to make a particular response immediately after making similar responses Incompatible behaviors two or more behaviors that cannot be performed simultaneous lnduction explanation of why a certain behavior is unacceptable often with a focus on the pain or distress that someone has caused another Applied behavior analysis systematic application of behaviorist principles in educational and therapeutic settings Functional analysis examination of inappropriate behavior and its antecedent and consequences to determine one or more purposes that the behavior might serves for the learner Positive behavior support variation of traditional applied behavior analysis that involves identifying the purposes of undesirable behaviors and encouraging alternative behaviors that more appropriately accomplish those purposes School wide positive behavior support systematic use of behaviorist principles to encourage and reinforce productive behaviors in all students typically involves multiple layers of support in order to accommodate the varying needs and heavier patterns of different students Focused on observable and quotobjectively measurablequot 0 Environmental stimuli o Learners responses Underlying assumptions 0 Behavior is a result of experiences with stimuli in immediate environment 0 Born a blank state conditioned by environment 0 Controlling environment can control behavior 0 Learning involves behavioral change result of experience 0 Learning involves forming associations among stimuliresponses Learning is most likely to take place when stimuli response occur close together 0 Contiguity between them Many species learn in similar ways Classical conditioning Pavlov salivation o 1 Beings with stimulus response association that already exists Unconditioned response UCR involuntary automatic salivation to the smell of meat Conditioning a neutral stimulus is presented immediately before the unconditioned stimulus a light presented before meat Before long new conditioned stimulus light elicits a response dogs salivate to light even without smell of meat 0 Common Phenomena o Generalization anxiety over long division anxiety over math 0 Extinction conditioned response will fade over time Instrumental conditioning Behavior increases or decreases as a result of the consequences those behaviors bring about Reinforcement v punishment Not de ned by pleasantness o Skinner Operant conditioning n Focused on reinforcement I Found evidence that reinforcement increases behavior but little evidence for in uence of punishment 0 Under certain circumstances punishment CAN be effective 0 Different from classical bc 0 Response is VOLUNTARY o Stimulus comes AFTER 0 Forms of reinforcement 0 Secondary reinforcement more common in classrooms Remember they are LEARNED reinforces Not all students will respond in the same way 0 Positive reinforcement Increase behavior with stimulus Extrinsic n Concrete object a Social a gesture n Activity opportunity to engage in favorite pastime n Token insigni cant item can be used to purchase a priviledge a Positive feedback lntrinsic a Do things because they want to 0 Negative reinforcement Increase behavior with removal of stimulus Removal of unpleasant stimuli Teachers should use this rarely if at all 0 Understanding developmental process Helps know what will work El Objects for little kids time to socialize for older kids Forms of punishment 0 Presentation v Removal Effective punishment in classroom El El El El El El Verbal reprimand privately Response cost removal punishment Logical consequence punishment ts crime Positivepractice over correction learnclarify what s appropriate Time out In school suspension Not effective aversive side effects counter productive or actually reinforces El El El Physical punishment Psychological punishment Extra work n Out of school suspension n Missing recess Strategies for encouraging productive behavior 0 Skinner believed punishment ineffective means of changing behavior 0 Urged teachers to focus on reinforcing desirable behavior to use reinforcement effectively Speci c desired behaviors at the outset n Specify terminal behaviors give students targets to shoot for Regularly reinforce desirable behaviors in ALL students Use extrinsic reinforces only when desired behaviors will not otherwise occur Determine whether particular reinforces are truly reinforcing for students Make response consequence contingencies explicit a Meet and discuss problem behavior with students Use group contingency group goals Monitor students progress a Baseline frequency compared to frequency after reinforcement Administer reinforcement consistently until desired behavior occurs at desired rate Once behavior is established GRADUALLY wean extrinsic motivation Shaping new behavior Reinforce any response that resembles the terminal behavior Reinforce a response that more closely resembles terminal behavior stop step1 Reinforce even more closely resembling behavior stop 2 Continue closer and closer and closer and then reinforce only terminal behavior Punishment when Necessary Not overly sever Inform students ahead of time that certain behavior is punished and explain how Follow through with speci ed consequences Administer punishment privately Emphasize that the behavior not student is unacceptable Administer punishment in context of warm supportive relationship Simultaneously teach desirable alternative Monitor effectiveness of punishment Diversity Behavior is a result of the different behaviors that cultures encourage discourage in students What consequencesreinforcing differs individually and cross culturally Use of behaviorist principles can be especially effective with students who have cognitive social or behavioral disabilities Before using extrinsic reinforces we should be sure that such reinforcers are truly necessary not already intrinsically motivated
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