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Chapter 10

by: Caoimhe Notetaker

Chapter 10 SOCI 2010

Caoimhe Notetaker
GPA 3.7
Foundations of Sociology
David Maddox

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Chapter 10 textbook notes
Foundations of Sociology
David Maddox
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 2010 at Tulane University taught by David Maddox in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Foundations of Sociology in Sociology at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 10/19/15
Foundations of sociology 10142015 Chapter 10 social strati cation inequality and poverty Being exposed to stressful environment due to poverty even before birth may have a negative effect on a child s outcomes Cant achieve equality of opportunity Social Strati cation examines inequalities among individuals and groups Systematic study of inequality History of inequality 0 Hunter gathers had only necessities so no substantial inequalities 0 With increased complexity of societies gained surplus With surplus came quotbig manquot who was able to control the surplus start of unequal societies 0 As settled agricultural communities increased inequalities increased Slavery Feudalism early source on inequality refers to a social order based on agriculture in which those who own land landlords are entitled to receive the products of serf laborers who are legally obligated to work for the landlord 0 Industrial revolution rapid economic growth which brought great inequality 0 Today almost 50 of wealth of the world is controlled by top 1 of the population Measure of economic inequality Wealth and income 0 Income the receipt of money or good over a particular period Sources earned for regularjob investments or ownership of property andor business transferred from government inherited or borrowed or illegal earnings 0 Wealth the net value of assets owned by individuals or family Source real estate Wealth difference between individuals and groups are often far larger than income differences 0 Other measures of well being 0 Consumption how much an individual or family actually consumes in a certain period of time may not directly correspond with income 0 Health o Opportunity Inequality by class 0 Large middle class in developing countries 0 Mostly Professional technical managerial jobs or small business owners 0 Enjoy enough income to buy homes cars computer large TV and have savingsinvestment accounts 0 Class groups of people in similar social and economic positions with similar opportunity in life and are affect similarly by government poHces 0 Only makes sense to look at class in relation to each other 0 3 approaches for determining class 0 How people earn money is more important than the amount of money than earn 0 SES combined factor takes more than money into account 0 Focus on adult occupations more likely to have similar beliefs Why is America so unequal Inequality and poverty are higher in US than any other rich democratic country 0 4 factors of inequality in US 1 Technology a Compliments some jobs BUT replaces others I Made having a college degree increasingly important 2 Deindustrialization decrease in manufacturing a Replacing good jobs for bad ones with less pay fewer bene ts and more likely part time 3 Globalization n Outsourcing 4 Government Policies a Progressive tax 0 Tax cuts a Minimum wage 0 Top 1 o Inheritance and hold jobs Executives High level managers Do we all have equal opportunity to Succeed Social mobility a measure of the extent to which parents and their children have similar or different social and economic positions in adu hood 0 High mobility equality of opportunity 0 US has low social mobility 0 Amount of mobility depends on What does on inside families How individuals are slotted into jobs within the labor market a Mobility is higher when good jobs are expanding Governmental policies I Regulate labor market and education system Meritocracy rewards and positions are distributed by ability NOT social background or persona connections 0 Investment in education allows for inheritance of privileged positions 0 Schools play a crucial role in blocking or facilitating social mobility Poverty in US and around the world 0 Poverty line 0 If you spend over 12 of income on food Has not taken into account change in cost of living just cost of food 0 Poverty in uenced by 0 Minority status in US 0 Education 0 Employment status 0 Family structure 0 Most poor people DO have jobs NI 39 0 0 About 23 of families living below poverty line have at least 1 member working at least part time Most poor families have very little savings to fall back upon in times of crisis 0 US spends less than any other wealthy country to alleviate poverty 0 Childhood poverty creates vicious cycle 0 O 0 Lack healthcare nutrition shelter effect development Stress and anxiety level are high which is bad for children development Exposure to toxins violence insecurity which effect cognition and development


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