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Chapter 7

by: Caoimhe Notetaker

Chapter 7 Nsci3300

Caoimhe Notetaker
GPA 3.7
Brian and behavior
Paul Colombo

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Chapter 7 textbook notes
Brian and behavior
Paul Colombo
Class Notes
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Monday October 19, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nsci3300 at Tulane University taught by Paul Colombo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 35 views. For similar materials see Brian and behavior in Psychlogy at Tulane University.


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Date Created: 10/19/15
Chapter 7 mechanisms of perception hearing touch smell taste and attention 10122015 Exteroceptive sensory system auditory somatosensory olfactory and gustatory Primary sensory cortex area of sensory cortex that receives most of its input directly from thalamic relay system Secondary sensory cortex the area of the cortex that receives most input from primary sensory cortex or other areas of secondary cortex at the same time Association cortex area that receives input from more than 1 sensory system Interactions among 3 types are characterized by 0 Hierarchical organization 0 Receptorsljprimary sensory cortex secondary sensory cortex association cortex 0 As one moves through a sensory system receptorljassociation cortex one nds neurons that respond optimally to stimuli of greater and greater speci city and complexity o The higher level of damage the more speci c and complex the de cit Perception Sensation detecting presence of stimuli Perception higher order process of integrating recognizing and interpreting Functional segregation 0 Each of the three levels of cerebral cortex in each sensory system contain functionally distinct areas that specialize in different kinds of analysis 0 Parallel 0 Info ows through components over multiple pathways simultaneous analysis of a signal in a different way by multiple parallel pathways of a neural network 0 Two fundamentally different kinds of parallel streams of analysis In uences our behavior without conscious awareness In uences our behavior by engaging our conscious awareness Perception product of combined activity of different interconnected cortical areas Auditory system Sounds vibrations of air molecules that stimulate the auditory system 0 Humans only hear vibrations between 2020000 hertz Fourier analysis mathematical procedure for breaking down complex waves into their component sine waves The pitch of sounds is related to their fundamental frequency 0 Fundamental frequency the highest frequency of which the various component frequencies are multiples Ex sounds mixed of 100 200 and 300 hertz has a pitch related to 100 hertz The ear Sounds waves travel from the outer ear down the auditory canal and cause the tympanic membrane the ear drum to vibrate The vibrations are then transferred to here ossicles small bones of middle ear 0 Malleus the hammer o lncus the anvil o Stapes the stirrup Vibrations of stapes trigger vibration of oval windows Which in turn transfers the vibration to the uid of cochlea Each pressure changes at oval window travels along the Oregon of corti as a wave Sensitivity of cochlea allows humans to hear even slight differences in tones Process of sorting segregating sound is still a mystery Signals from each ear are combined at a very low level and are transmitted to both ipsilaterally and contralateral auditory cortex Sound localization Mediated by lateral and medial superior olives 0 When sound originates to a persons left it reaches left ear rst and is louder in left ear Medial responds to slight different in time of arrival of the signal Lateral responds to slight difference in amplitude Auditory cortex 0 Primary auditory cortex is organized in functional columns 0 Within a column neurons respond optimally to sounds in same frequency range 0 Each area of primary and secondary auditory cortex appears to be organized on the basis of frequency 0 Be we don t know what analysis the auditory cortex performs it is difficult to ask the right questions 0 Most research on sensory system interaction focuses on interaction between auditory and visual in posterior parietal cortex 0 Functional brain imagining is changing how we think about sensory systems 0 Con rmed that sensory system interaction is an early and integral part of sensory processing Auditory dysfunction 0 Severe hearing problems typically result from damage to the inner ear middle ear or the nerves leading from them 0 2 main types of deafness o Conductive deafness damage to ossicles o Nerve deafness damage to cochlea or auditory nerves Mostly caused by loss of hair cell receptors 0 Hearing loss sometimes associated with tinnitus ringing in the ear 0 Often results when only one ear is damaged 0 Changes to the central auditory system caused by deafness cause tinnitus Somatosensory touch pain o 3 separate by interacting systems 0 Exteroceptive system Senses external stimuli applied to the skin a Perceiving mechanical stimuli touch a Thermal stimuli temperature a Nociceptors stimuli pain Main focus of this section 0 Proprioceptive system Monitors info about position of body that comes from receptors in muscles joints and organs of balance 0 lnteroceptive Provides general info about conditions within the body Receptors in skin cutaneous receptors 0 Simplest free nerve endings not special structures Particularly sensitive to temperature changes and pain 0 Largest pacinian corpuscles Adapt rapidly ad therefore respond to sudden displacements of skin but not constant pressure Opposite of merkels disk or Ruf ni endings Two major somatosensory pathways 0 The dorsal column medial leminsus o TENDS TO carry info about touch and proprioception o Sensory neurons enter spinal cord via dorsal root ascend ipsilaterally to dorsal columns and synapse in dorsal column nuclei of medulla axon then cross over to other side of brain and ascend in the medial leminicus to the contralateral ventral posterior nucleus of the thalamus o The anterolateral system 0 TENDS TO carry info about pain and temperature 0 Most dorsal root neurons synapse as soon as they enter spinal cord Axons of most second order neurons decussate but then ascend to the brain in the contralateral anterolateral portions of the spinal cord When it comes to spinal cord injuries the lower the better Cortical areas of somatosensation Human primary somatosensory cortex is somatotopic o Organized according to a map of the body surface 0 Each neuron in a particular column of primary somatosensory cortex has a receptive eld on the same part of the body and respond most robustly to the same type of stimuli Effects of damage to primary somatosensory cortex are often remarkably mild because features numerous parallel pathways Bimodal neurons visual Somatosensory neurons are spatially related o If a neurons has a somatosensory receptive eld centered in left hand visual eld is adjacent to left hand As left hand moves visual receptive eld moves with it Somatosensory agnosia Asterognosia inability to recognize objects by touch Asomatognosia failure to recognize part of ones own body Paradox of pain 0 Adaptive pain is necessary for survival 0 No obvious cortical representation 0 Can be suppressed by cognitive or emotional factors Neuropathic pain sever chronic pain in absence of a recognizable pain stimuli Chemical sense smell and taste Monitor chemical content of environment Combine to determine avor Olfactory receptor cells located in upper nose Taste receptor cells located on tongue and parts of oral cavity 0 One receptor protein per taste receptor cell narrowly tuned 0 Taste receptor protein are not restricted to oral cavity 0 Anosmia inability to smell 0 Cause by blow to the head that causes a displacement of brain within skill o Ageusia inability to taste 0 RARE can be caused by ear damage Selective attention Consciously perceive small subset of many stimuli o lmproves perception of stimuli in focus 0 lnterferes with perception of stimuli not in focus 0 Attention is focused by 0 Internal cognitive process endogenous Top down a Ex looking at a table because you are looking for keys 0 External events exogenous Bottom up n Ex looking at table because your cat knocked over a lamp 0 Cocktail party effect 0 When focusing and unaware of other stimuli like when having a conversation with one person at a party the mention of your name will automatically gain access to your consciousness Change blindness o No memory for parts of a scene that are not the focus of our attention Can look at a scene and not notice the picture of the wall disappearing


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